The Fundamental Things Students Should Know About Stata

STATA is a menu and commands-controlled software used to fully analyze and manage graphical data.  This software is broadly applied in doing math and statistics calculations. STATA software can easily work together with MAC, windows and Linux. Its key role is to store information, manage and analyze the data, as well as building graphs. It is vastly used by researchers handling large volume of data sets.

Most researchers prefer STATA software since it enables them to do everything with the data at hand. What has made this software popular with its command line is its graphical user interface. Among its other powerful features is its ability to retrieve information from any source, it allows storage of similar data without modifying the present file by creating a duplicate file. It allows dragging of any information from the files to the key window. it is simple to manage data by a new file destination or copying the data where it will be easily retrieved by one user. However, it takes a lumpsum amount of time to develop an easy assignment for a simple assignment. However, you can always seek assistance from experts to complete an assignment.

STATA for students is mostly designed for undergraduates who are doing methodology classes. However, it’s also useful to other graduates’ students, and researchers who are interested with STATA basic introduction.

STATA for students is usually segmented into precise sections. Students need to read everything in the STATA fundamentals part before proceeding to anything else. Furthermore, following the fundamental section students are advised to read the understanding this part. Doing so will assist them see sense in everything else that they do from there and make them be efficient users.

In STATA variables that explain segments such as sex or race instead of quantities like capital frequencies inform you the number of observations in each section for example single variable and univariate statistics.

Categorical variables are also referred to as factor variables. while indicator variables are also known as dummy or binary variables. single variable for frequency tables are at times referred to as one-way tables.

Variables which explain about quantities such as income its mean informs you what the expected value of the variable is. the standard deviation tells you the extent at which it varies. On the other hand, the percentiles and median show in a better way how the variable is distributed, mostly on variables which are non-symmetric which are also univariate statistics.

Quantitative variables are mostly referred to as continuous variables. its means are known as averages. The variance is squaring the standard deviation. Whereas the median is the 50th percentage.

With 2 categorical variables, the frequencies present the number of observations that fall in every combination of the two categorical variables and can derive a sense of relationship between the 2 variables. examples include statistics explain two variables joint distribution or bivariate statistics. And the frequency tables for two variables are referred to as crosstabs, two-way tables or contingency tables.

In Categorical and quantitative variables, quantitative variable mean value for observations that fall in the categorical variable category can generate a sense on the relationship of the two variables. Examples of this are bivariate statistics.

From two categorical variables, frequencies will inform you the number of observations that fall in every combination of the variable and give their relationship sense. example of this is multivariate statistics.

For two or more categorical variables or a quantitative variable, the mean figure of the quantitative variable for the observations in every combination of the categorical variables can offer you a sense of relation between the variables. example of these is the multivariate statistics.

STATA commands for doing a task are intuitive and simple to learn. Whatever you learn about doing a certain task can be applied to various different actions. For instance, add if gender==”female” to all control keys to restrict your analysis to females within your test. On the other hand, just add vce(robust) to any data processor to get experimental tests and standard mistakes that are recurrent on several general hypothesis.

Simple to automate. Every person has tasks that they perform all the time. develop a certain kind of variable, generate a certain table, do a pattern of statistical steps, calculate an RMSE among others. STATA has several inbuilt procedures; However, you might be having tasks that a slightly unique or you want performed in a certain manner.

If you have a data set where you have drafted a script to do your tasks, it’s simple to change that script into something that can be applied on any of your variables, dataset or observations

It’s easy to extend. Some of the things you automate might be helpful such that you feel to share with your peers or even make them accessible to all users. It very easy, with just a little code you can transform an automated script into a command.

Although you do not need to know programming for you to use STATA, it’s important to acknowledge a quick and complete programming language is a crucial section.

STATA constantly adds new features to its interface. STATA is solely the statistical package with integrated versioning. If you drafted a script to do an analysis 10 years ago, the script will still run and generate the same results today. Any dataset you developed 10 years ago; you can still read it today regardless of the time it will always remain true. Generally, STATA can run everything that you do today.
  • It’s available at a cost-effective price
  • Most students and researchers prefer it because it is easy to learn and use.
  • It is considered as the best software for data management additionally its highly accurate and fast.
  • It has a good built-in support for structural equation modeling
  • It allows easy specification of models through syntax or path diagram
  • In the do-file, it uses loops and macros
  • It can handle several do files at once, hence making it simple to copy and paste information from one file to another.
  • Its user friendly to both beginners and advanced users since it can be operated with syntax or menu.

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What to look for when buying a computer for programming

The common problem that plagues the mind of any programmers or aspiring developer is always the issue of what computer to get in other to be able to dispense coding optimally.

But thank goodness we now live in an age that has turned the world into a global village, thereby making it easy for us to sit in the comfort of our homes and order a computer from anywhere in the world.

But then, another issue presents itself, even though the world is now a global village, there is the problem of credibility, security, and over-saturation of information. 

So how then can we order for a computer from a reliable source? And secondly, what should we be on the lookout for when buying a computer for coding?

For the first question, look no further, for inside-tech is not only a reliable source but also a one-stop e-commerce store all your computer needs. And for the latter, read on to gain some insights.


For most programmers, this is not an issue, unless you are involved in very heavy graphics or video editing, then you might be inclined to go for something with a 4k display which is as of now the best form of monitor out there, followed by ultra-HD, and LCD. 

Generally speaking, any display should be fine for coding, but you want to bear in mind that if you decide to go for the LCD display, make sure you go for the one with an In-plane Switching (IPS).

What this basically does is to enable you to see all the images and figures on your screen even when viewed from an angle, because a traditional LCD does become blurred or disfigured when viewed from an angle.

Screen Size

The size of your screen boils down to your personal preference. Some people have eye problems and would rather work on a big screen, but if you don’t mind working on a small screen then, by all means, go for it.

But from a programmers point of view and from personal experience, the bigger the better, one because you will be able to distinctly see all your coding plus whenever there is an error, and you are evaluating your program for a bug or two, you most definitely will appreciate a big screen as it will be easy to spot your errors and fix them.


As a programmer, graphic isn’t a big deal at all except maybe you have other hobbies like gaming in which you will have to go for a very strong rendering graphics card that can support heavy gaming environment.

But if the sole purpose of your computer is coding, then don’t pay much attention to getting an advanced graphic-card. A standard graphic processing unit (GPU) will do.


Depending on whether you are cut out for sitting down for long hours or you are the one who likes to change positions very often and more so if you intend to travel a lot and code from different parts of the world.

Then you know you will probably have to go for a laptop for easy mobility. There are uncountable laptops out there that are very suitable for programming. The only downside though, is that it comes with a moderately higher price tag when compared with their desktop counterparts.

Processing Speed

This is something you might want to pay attention to. Now depending on the programming language, the size of the program you intend to write and the number of programs you intend to execute (run). You might need a processor with a lot of processing power anywhere from two cores to 8 cores.

The advantage of having a processing unit with a higher speed and a lot of cores is that sometimes you might be writing or developing two or three different programs at the same time and the final stage might involve the fusion of all three separate programs to form one holistic unit.

It trickles down to what you intend to do. There are different coding languages out there and various applications as well. Do your homework and know what language you will be specializing in, and what applications you want to be writing!


Random-access memory (RAM) is basically responsible for the speed at which applications are accessed on your computer. So yes, you should consider getting a computer with not too high a ram and not too low a ram. 

You should aim for 8 gigabytes of ram and above. Any below 8 for the ram size, will not be palatable—not that you cannot work with that—but you might have glitches from time to time. And I don’t need to tell you how irritating that can be for a programmer.


Most modern computers now come with a solid-state drive (SSD), which as the name implies, is a solid device and does not have any moving part embedded in it. Which unlike its predecessor—hard disk drive (HDD) that came with a spinning disk inside the storage unit by which data was stored.

Now the advantage of having a solid-state drive is that data and application are stored efficiently and rapidly because there are no moving parts within it, thereby increasing the average runtime speed. Not just that, an SSD makes for easy access and opening of programs, folders, or information that is stored on it.


This part is not really important if you live in an already developed nation with uninterrupted power supply. But if some reason you live in a country without a constant supply of power, then you either want to go for a UPS station that gives you ample time to conclude whatever it is you are doing on the system and shut down. 

Or better still just go for a laptop that has long battery life

Like we talked about earlier on, If you are someone who lives in a developed nation, and knows that you have an affinity for traveling or camping. Then the best bet will be to go for a laptop that is equipped with long-lasting battery life. 


Nothing can be made to perfection without costing too much money, and because of that singular reason is why we have things like warranty, so that in the event that a component or system application breaks down, there is always some form of insurance to cover it.

So you might want to do a little research and look for brands that not only offer an extended warranty but also has aftermarket OEM parts and components—so that you can either upgrade or repair if your warranty expires.

But you should know that if you opt for a notebook, there wouldn’t be much you can do to upgrade aside from changing ram and SSD.


The last but not the least–-Operating system—! This has always been an issue of contention amongst programmers. There is always the argument of which operating system one should opt for in terms of Windows, Linux, Mac, and Chrome.

The answer to this is very simple. It depends on the code you are writing. If you specialize in code, which is a platform on which Microsoft operates, then, by all means, use a windows operating system. The same thing applies to other operating systems.    





How to build your Own Real-Time Chat App like WhatsApp?

Communication can come in many forms. From talking over the phone to the letter by snail-mail, humans are finding different ways to communicate. In recent years, there have been technological innovations that have changed the communication game and significantly increased the pace of human communications.

All over the world, people are looking for convenient and real-time channels they can use to send messages to other people, no matter where those people are located in the world. Reports say that an average smartphone user sends at least five text messages a day. Additionally, most of these messages are sent from chat applications like WhatsApp and Messenger.

Chat apps are soaring in popularity. Because of their popularity, these apps are increasing worldwide communication and are bringing in a large amount of revenue for the developer.

Despite the fact that the industry is controlled by big players like WhatsApp, Messenger, and Viber, there are still opportunities to take advantage of the chat app market. While it is a great idea to create an app similar to WhatsApp, using the right technology might be all you need to set the ball rolling.

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Chat Apps have Fierce Competition

It is worth noting that chat apps are not easy to come by. It takes resilience to stay put in the market. WhatsApp had started off on a good note. Facebook was also able to realize the considerable acceptance of WhatsApp and saw this as a threat to its chat app, Messenger.

This was why Facebook decided to make an offer to the developer. Later on, WhatsApp was acquired by Facebook for USD 22 billion. So, it takes every bit of effort possible to make a chat app popular. WhatsApp’s developer became a billionaire a few years after launching his app.

You can achieve even more than the developer of WhatsApp if you take your time and follow the steps of creating a creative, sustainable chat app. In spite of the fierce competition and established brands such as Messenger and WhatsApp, knowledge of specific technologies is enough for a keen app developer to beat the records set by previous chat apps. First of all, you need to hire the right app development team which can help you convert your app idea into reality. You can check this blog post which has covered the important points to consider before developing an app. Let’s get started with the important things to consider before developing an app like Whatsapp:

Master the Basics

Before you set on the journey of developing an app like WhatsApp, it is important to master the features users would like to see. WhatsApp stepped up the game with file sharing and end-to-end encryption. Apart from this, there are other features that should be integrated into your chat app.

User Interface – Users won’t like to go through stressful processes when exchanging messages. The user interface (UI) should be kept as simple as possible. A good UI gives rise to amazing user experience (UX) which will keep your chat app a cut above the rest.

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Data Storage – Believe it or not, chat apps are not just tools for communication. WhatsApp proved that these apps could also serve as storage devices. Before setting about the task of building a chat app, set up a backend architecture that will contain users’ data. If you can lay your hands on file storage service like Amazon S3, that would be a great way to start.

Push Notifications – Chat app users always want to know when a message drops into their inbox. A push notification feature will do your chat app a whole lot of good and will also increase the chances of its integration into the everyday lives of users.

Security – Despite being a faster way to communicate, chat apps are like “secret boxes”. So security features must be a priority. Integrating end-to-end encryption, which keeps away messages from third-party affiliations, should be the first step in creating a secure app experience.

Quick Search – It is a great task surfing chats to locate a particular message. WhatsApp reinvented chat apps with a search feature. With the right keyword, messages can be found in real-time. This should be a must-have feature when building a real-time chat app.

Technical Stacks – What Happens under the Hood of Chat Apps

Popular chat apps like WhatsApp and Messenger have underlying architecture. Building a chat app requires specific technologies which will cover major features like database and storage.

For instance, WhatsApp uses the Mnesia database and the XMPP protocol. In addition, it was written with the Erlang programming language and has Ejabbered as a server. On the other hand, Viber uses Amazon Web Services (AWS) as its server.

Before setting about the development of a chat app, specific frameworks must be put together. This not only improves the app but also makes user experience worth the time. So, do some research, speak with fellow developers, and find the best combination of technology stacks for your chat app.

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Contus Fly has Amazing Architecture

An average amateur developer believes app development is a tedious task. Writing codes are distasteful to such developer. What they want is a tailored solution to build a chap app. So, with ease in mind, Contus Fly has the best of technologies that make chat app development less stressful. Are you ready to roll up your sleeves and begin building a chat app like WhatsApp? Great! Thankfully, Contus Fly got you covered.

Contus Fly has architectures which allow you to develop chat apps similar to WhatsApp. It has become the latest solution to build a chat app like WhatsApp. Here are some features offered with Contus Fly as the app architect:

Amazon hosts the Web – Chat apps built with Contus Fly are free from hosting limitations. The ever-efficient Amazon Web Service (AWS) takes control of the hosting operations.

Optimum Security –The platform (Contus Fly) has different security features which provide rock-solid security of users’ data. In the light of this, the end-to-end encryption, HMAC, and AES security options are some of the security features you can find on Contus Fly.

Interface – The BEAM interface supports multi-core messaging. It also handles memory management. The interface is managed by the Erlang-powered virtual machine.

Voice and Video Calls – Contus Fly use the built-in WebRTC signaling for iOS and Android chat apps. The feature makes cross-platform voice and video calls possible.

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Text Translator – With Contus Fly, you’re on the way to building a cross-border language chat app. Contus Fly architecture supports multilingual text translator. Users can utilize this in translating hundreds of languages into their native language.

Multiple Chat Channels – The architecture also allows for the creation of multiple chat channels. There are supports for broadcast messaging, group messages, and one-to-one conversations.

Protocols and Programming Language – Contus Fly Laravel, Ejabbered, and strophe.js protocols increase the performance of chat apps built with the Contus Fly architecture. Erlang is the main programming language and PHP makes navigation with Android and iOS devices possible.

Wrapping Up

Building a chat app is completely possible with the right tools. With a platform like Contus Fly, the process gets easier. Contus Fly has impressive features that a developer can use to create chat apps which can beat the set by WhatsApp. While it’s true that app development is an investment of time and money, that doesn’t mean you should skip the opportunity to become the developer of the next successful chat app. Your app has the potential to become as big, if not bigger, than WhatsApp. Take your time, be thorough in your app’s development, and watch it grow with every user download!