Brain

All You Need to Know About ADHD

Many children are known to be hyperactive and curious with short attention spans, especially when they are younger. Many of them often like to play rough too. And while these might be completely normal behaviors for a certain developmental stage, in other cases, depending on the child’s age, it might be something completely different.

You might have or not have heard of ADHD before, although it is a fairly common disorder that can develop during childhood. However, despite its commonality, there are still many misconceptions people have about it.

So, if you are interested in learning more about it, as well as everything that it entails, here are some useful things you should have in mind.

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What Is It?

ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a mental disorder and chronic condition that is mainly characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. People who have it might also struggle with sitting still and in one place for longer periods and express certain patterns of behavior. It is something both adults and children can suffer from, although it is more commonly developed by children, especially before the age of 7.

What Are the Symptoms and Behavioral Patterns?

Symptoms linked with the disorder range widely but perhaps the most common and most distinguishable ones include:

  • finding it hard to focus or concentrate on a single task
  • being forgetful
  • expressing strong emotional reactions
  • being easily distracted
  • making careless mistakes due to inattention
  • being fidgety and needing to constantly do something
  • finding it hard to complete chores or school work
  • lacking organizational skills
  • poor listening skills or constantly interrupting people while their talking

What Leads to the Disorder?

Source:psychcentral.com

Despite the number of people with the condition, the exact cause of it is still unknown. However, researchers and doctors are constantly searching for an answer. For now, it is believed that it is connected to genetics and also has a neurological origin.

Current research eludes to two most plausible causes with the first being a reduced level of dopamine which helps neurological signals move through our body and is responsible for triggering movement and emotional responses.

The second refers to having a different brain structure and a smaller volume of gray matter which includes brain areas related to speech, muscle control, decision-making, and self-control.

Diagnosis & Testing

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Though many people might express all the behaviors listed above occasionally, they are much more severe and frequent for individuals with ADHD. It is crucial to receive a proper diagnosis and treatment since failure to do so can greatly and negatively affect one’s quality of life.

Diagnosing it is impossible with a single test, in fact, it is non-existent. Instead, a thorough examination by an expert is necessary and it involves several steps. For proper diagnosis, a professional might conduct a full medical exam and interviews with family members, examine one’s medical history, assess any and all symptoms, and rule out other possible conditions.

However, if you are suspecting that your child has the disorder, the first step would be to book a consultation. There are many doctors who specialize in its treatment such as Dr. Dawn from the ADHD Wellness Center, who not only helps treat all aspects of the disorder but is actively working to raise and promote awareness of it too.

When it comes to treatment it is determined by the type of ADHD an individual has. So, before we take a look at the different options, let’s take a look at the types.

The Different Forms

  1. The Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Kind

People with this type primarily display hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Not being able to wait their turn, fidgeting, and interrupting others are all common symptoms.

Still, many might also have focus and concentration issues, although not as strong as with other types.

  1. The Predominantly Inattentive Kind

Loss of focus, a short attention span, difficulty concentrating, and finding hard to follow instructions or finish tasks are some of the most common symptoms of this type and it is one that is more common among girls.

It is often the one that leads to misdiagnoses since children with this type do not cause disruption in class and rarely display any hyperactive or impulsive behaviors.

  1. The Combined Kind

As the name suggests, individuals who have the combined type express behaviors from both previously mentioned types. Being overly energetic and active while also struggling to focus and pay attention are all typical. This is also the most common type people have.

Treatment Options

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Unfortunately, there is no cure for the neurodevelopmental disorder but proper treatment can help keep most of the symptoms under control. This includes taking medication, behavioral therapy, or a combination of both.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy teaches the child certain strategies that will help them monitor and manage their behavior and help them with their social skills as well. Implementing lifestyle changes will also be necessary since they will help improve focus and organization.

Psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, can involve parents and other family members too and it can provide everyone with counseling and strategies on how to deal with problematic or difficult situations. It will also help everyone gain a better understanding of the condition and what it entails.

Medication is another helpful method that has an effect on the chemicals in one’s brain and helps individuals have better control over their actions, emotions, and impulses. They include stimulants, non-stimulants, and in some cases antidepressants.

Medication

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For children under the age of six, medication is not recommended and instead experts suggest using behavioral therapy as a treatment method primarily. For any other age, medication is prescribed accordingly based on several factors.

Stimulants are used to increase the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine which are chemicals that can be found in the brain. In some cases, they might not be effective or cause troublesome side effects.

This is when non-stimulants are prescribed and generally work by increasing the amount of norepinephrine in the brain.

Antidepressants are prescribed in severe cases since two-thirds of people who have ADHD also suffer from at least one other condition such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and more.

Conclusion

If you are growing increasingly worried that your child might have the condition, do not wait or hesitate to get an evaluation. If it turns out your hunch was right, your child will be able to receive proper treatment and help that they need. This is crucial and the most significant for ensuring their quality of life.

Advantages of multilingualism you might not know

In a context of increased globalization, be it trade, political or cultural interactions, mastery of one or more languages ​​is a stepping stone to your career. Keep in mind that it’s never too late to learn a new language or improve your level in a language you already know.

There is no such thing as a perfect age for learning a language because at different stages of life people count with different tools for learning. With motivation, whether for work or personal reasons, learning a new language is always possible.

You can even plan to stay for a few months and get your skills to a new level, e.g. going to a Spanish school in Barcelona. If you want more information, click here.

Improve your work skills

source: medium.com

The qualities involved in learning a language are often as important as the language itself. Being capable of speak one or more shows adaptability and open-mindedness.

By mastering the language of another country, you also learn about its customs and culture. Talking Mandarin, for example, could help you better understand the culture of your new Chinese customers.

Facilities to multitask at the same time

By switching frequently from one language to another, you are obliged to pay attention to what surrounds you in order to adapt quickly to changes in their environment.

Your brain develops an ability that makes you able to perform multiple tasks at the same time compared to monolingual people of the same age.

Language skills

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Multilingual people have a better understanding of the concept of language and can, therefore, more easily acquire a new language during childhood or adulthood.

Already used to switching from one language to another, you will be able to talk about others while maintaining this ability to “switch” between languages.

Languages keep your brain fit

Learning languages ​​is good for the brain! Multilingual people have greater malleability and cognitive flexibility than monolinguals.

The knowledge of a second language would thus make it possible to develop a verbal intelligence, a conceptual formation, global reasoning and to stimulate the discovery of rules underlying the solution of problems.

In other words, learning a new language is a cerebral gymnastics that can only improve your intellectual faculties, your creativity or even your self-confidence, whatever your professional ambitions. But how does this organ behave when we use a foreign language?

According to recent research, brain synchronization would not be the same depending on the language used. Conducted in the Basque Center on Cognition, Brain, and Language (BCBL), this study is the first to see a different connection of brains according to the language spoken.

Results obtained thanks to brain waves

Image source: inside.isb.ac.th

In 2017, the research team has already studied the phenomenon of brain synchronization on volunteers speaking the same language. For this new study, they recruited 60 people, who did not know each other and who were grouped in pairs.

Separated by a screen, they held a conversation already written for them, which alternated between mother tongue and a foreign language. During all these exchanges, the scientists realized electroencephalograms to study the cerebral activity.

When both people spoke their native language, their brainwaves aligned in a certain way, but this synchronization differed when they used a foreign language.

A way to better understand others

“The brains of two people speaking a foreign language establish a different neural link (…) to understand their interlocutor,” details Alejandro Perez, one of the authors of this research.

The exact causes of this phenomenon remain mysterious, but for researchers, this would probably be related to attention strategies. These are tools that allow two people to understand each other and communicate.

When speaking our native language, our attention is focused on the sentences and their overall meaning. Conversely, exchanging in a foreign language shifts our focus to sounds and words. Mastering another language would stimulate the brain by mobilizing different processes.

In 2014, researchers found that people who could speak several languages ​​had better cognitive abilities than others. These benefits are seen both in bilingual people since childhood and in those who have learned a second language as adults.

Cybersecurity: Are we there yet?

A good old-fashioned bank robbery isn’t very popular nowadays. The bad guys don’t even need guns. They commit crimes from home with the help of the computer. Welcome to the world of technology where everything can get hacked.

Thirty years ago people were not thinking of cybersecurity. There were no wireless computers, mobile banking apps, Facebook, the cryptocurrency market, etc. An interesting fact is that the first virus, named Brain, was released a few years after International business machines corporation had introduced the first personal computer. The virus was written by two brothers from Pakistan. At that time, people from the United States and the United Kingdom were so shocked that their computers had a virus that they were calling directly to Pakistan demanding to disinfect their machines.

source: itsecurityguru.org

Nowadays users have different kinds of antivirus software. No one keeps track of the number of computer viruses. The world would be a great place if a random Internet virus was the only cybersecurity problem. At this point, there are a lot of cyber dangers such as crypto jacking, data breaches, and ransomware attacks. Hackers can steal users’ passwords and go through personal information including photos, emails, chats on WhatsApp, and bank details. More than that, they can attack the government, hack Tesla cars and home automation system. There is no safe place.

source: curt-rice.com

Even large corporations such as Google, Facebook, FedEx, Amazon or Wikipedia experience cyber attacks. Despite the amount of financial and human resources, they still can’t fully protect themselves. For instance, Sony’s PlayStation Network was attacked in 2011. The company was going through hell – the team of hackers stole the personal data of 77 million users. The list of data included customers’ names, passwords, credit cards numbers, and expiration dates. Needless to say, the users’ bank accounts had been illegally used. To appease disappointed customers the company paid compensation of 15 million dollars in total. Plus, they were in charge of refunding money that was stolen from all their customers. The experts call it the world’s largest cyber attack. Another important fact is that it was possible to avoid this incident. Sony decided to ignore a well-known network vulnerability and paid the price for it.

source: com.ng

Hackers can also be different. Not everyone will go to attack government or political parties. Some hackers target celebrities and their Instagram profiles by using a flaw in the Instagram security system. In 2016, Selena Gomez’s Instagram was hacked. Unknown posted nude photos of Justin Bieber from her profile. The American singer had 125 million followers at that time.

source: the20.com

Everyone can become a victim of a cyber attack. History shows that the consequences can be terrible. That’s why it is so important to spread the message about cybersecurity and what to do in order to avoid getting hacked. Hackers are evolving at the same speed as technology, so users should become more careful both online and offline. No one knows what can be worse – showing your nude pictures to the millions of people or pay off 15 million dollar debt.

If you want to learn more about cybersecurity and how to protect yourself, check out the infographic below, according to ServerMania: