Technology - Page 33

Beginners Guide to ExpressVPN (Short Review)

ExpressVPN is a virtual private network service which provides a stable and feature-packed network with clients and documentation. The British Virgin Islands-based company Express VPN International Ltd. offers this service which can be used on a number of devices and operating systems. This service might seem expensive, but it’s only one of the few VPN services which encrypt users’ web traffic and masks the IP addresses. Here is a short review, as well as, a beginners guide to ExpressVNP.

Why and How to Buy ExpressVPN?

Express VPN International Ltd. is a British Virgin Islands-based company which doesn’t share the UK’s strict data retention laws. Hence, if you want to pay with anonymous payment options, you can purchase your subscription with bitcoin. The no-logging policy of the company has been put to the test in a court of law and no logs were found on the systems.

Img source: addons.mozilla.org

If you are wondering how to buy ExpressVPN, you should simply visit bestvpnrating.com. What’s best about ExpressVPN is that using it doesn’t require any tech skills. Instead, you should simply sign up, install, and click On to connect. ExpressVPN is probably the most straightforward software you’ll ever encounter.

The Most Prominent Features and Usability of ExpressVPN

ExpressVNP can be used on a wide range of operating systems and works with any internet connection including wired, Wi-Fi, and cellular networks. When used on Windows, it has a very simple interface. Hence, in order to use it, you should press on a cheery-looking button which will connect you to an optimized endpoint or the last selected one. Moreover, it features a diagnostics output and a speed test. The diagnostic output is an excellent feature for people who want to be aware of what is going on in the background as it lets you see your log files. Additionally, there is also an options menu from which you can enable an internet kill switch which stops the internet traffic when you lose VPN connection. You can also choose whether you want ExpressVPN to start and connect on Windows startup.

Img source: findyourvpn.com

With Chrome, Firefox and Safari extensions, you can start the VPN directly from your browser, automatically connect to the last used location as soon as you open your browser, and prevent or block data leaks from the WebRTC protocol. Besides on Windows, ExpressVNP can be used on Linux, MacOS, mobile platforms, Kindle Fire and Fire TV. The instructions on how to use ExpressVPN are always available with routers and other appliances.

Nevertheless, it is worth noting another important feature of the ExpressVNP and that’s its price. ExpressVNP is probably one of the most expensive VPN services and it comes with an annual price of £76.42 (£6.37 per month) and a month-to-month subscription price of £9.93.

The Pros and The Cons of ExpressVPN In a Nutshell

So, in a nutshell, ExpressVPN offers a wide range of endpoint countries, excellent transfer speeds, and no-logging policy. However, it is quite pricey when compared to other VNPs and there is a possibility to be detected by Netflix US and BBC iPlayer.

Best ways to track your smartphone 

Smartphones aren’t cheap and they are some of the more precious items we carry in our pockets. That’s why losing them can be quite an ordeal. Luckily, there are a few ways we can track down our lost or stolen phones. Even though we’re mostly switching to smartphones, there are still ways to track down older phones. Maybe you have an iPhone, maybe an Android phone, but whatever the case is, don’t worry, you can still get your phone back.

Smartphone tracking apps

source: cnet.com

Apple has its Find my iPhone app which helps you find your missing device whether it’s iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple watch, or even AirPods. You can download the app on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch and use it to find the device that is missing. You need to have the app turned on on every device in order to be able to locate it once you lose it or it gets stolen. By signing in to iCloud or the app, you can see the location of your lost device on the map. In case you lost your AirPods, you can play a sound that will help you find them.

Trackmyphone.net is another app offering similar features and according to the creators, tracking the phone based on the sent text messages is a thing of the past as the social media is taking over. They say that the most effective way to track the phone is by using social media and the voice recorder.

source: cnet.com

Google has the Find My Device app that can help you find your phone, tablet or a watch. It will show you its location on a map, and in case a current location isn’t available, you’ll be able to see its last known location. Not only will the app help you find your devices around the town, but also indoors in case you lost it somewhere in an airport, mall, or similar. This app will let you play a sound on your lost device helping you find it more easily. Both, Find my I phone and Find my Device apps will help you protect your data while you’re looking for your missing device.

Samsung also has its own app that will help you locate your missing phone and it works in a pretty much similar way as the first three apps.

source: avast.com

Avast Antivirus & Security is used by a lot of people around the world and its features are well known. Besides offering virus scanning, protection and backup, it can also be quite useful in case you lose your phone. By using Avast you can remotely wipe your smartphone and listen, without anyone knowing thanks to its stealth mode. You can get the protection from viruses and device location feature in one app in case you’re willing to pay a bit more.

For regular cell phones there are numerous GPS tracking services that can be helpful. You have to register your phone with a certain service in order to be able to find it in case it goes missing. If you didn’t do that, then your options are quite limited. All you can hope for is that your service provider might be able to locate it

XLR Cable 101: How Do They Work?

XLR cables are important pieces of equipment for those in the professional audio field. These specialized cables provide a means of transit for an audio signal between hardware. While they may look simple on the outside, there is a lot going on behind the scenes that must be in place to ensure that the audio signal is transmitted flawlessly from one spot to another. In this article, you’ll learn all about XLR cables!

XLR Cable History

The first XLR connector was invented in the 1940s by a man named James H. Cannon. Back then, they were commonly called Cannon plugs or Cannon connectors after their original inventor. The formal connector name was the Cannon X series. After 1950, Cannon’s company added a locking mechanism, and the new connector was called the Cannon XL. With the addition of neoprene around the female parts of the connector, Cannon finalized the name to XLR, the “R” standing for “resilient” which is still used to this day.

Image Source: Soundfirst.com – The Cannon XL plug

XLR Cable Uses

XLR cables are manufactured with up to 10 pins! Each pin has a specific function. These special connectors have all kinds of applications, but mainly the XLR cables with higher pins are used for power and balancing. For example, on a 4-pin XLR cable, pins 1 and four are used for DC power. Some HD camcorders used to use 5-pin XLR cables, with extra pins for stereo audio. Neutrik, an industry leader in XLR connectors, recently released a 10-pin XLR connector. These can transmit four pairs of data along with 16 Amps at 50 V for high-performance audio applications.

  • XLR3 is the most common design and is used worldwide in professional audio. They are almost always used to connect microphones to audio interfaces in professional recording studios. They can also be used for stage lighting equipment.
  • XLR4 is used to connect intercom headsets as well as professional video equipment. These find their way into stage lighting as well.
  • XLR5 is very commonly used for DMX stage lighting, and also for stereo audio applications like we mentioned earlier.
  • XLR6 is used to achieve a balanced microphone signal in some headsets
  • XLR7 is used to connect specialized microphones to their power sources. They’re also used for fog machines.
Image Source: Sweetwater.com – This fog machine has two XLR inputs and two XLR outputs for DMX. One pair is 5-pin and one is 3-pin.

 

Designing the Best XLR Cable

According to synapticsound.com, the best XLR cable will have several design features that ensure they transmit the signal from point A to point B with as little distortion and added noise as possible. They are listed below.

Balancing

You may have heard the term “balanced” in the paragraphs above and wondered what that means. Balancing is a method that electrical engineers use to eliminate or reduce added noise caused by radio-frequency (RF) interference.

How It Works

A balanced cable usually has 3 or more conductors. In 3-pin balanced XLR cables, the cable contains two signal wires and one ground wire. The two signal wires carry the same signal waveform, except one of them that has its polarity reversed as it’s transmitted from point A to point B. While in transit, both signals will pick up the same levels and frequencies of added noise due to RF interference. Then, at point B, the inverted signal along with its additional noise is inverted once again and added to the other signal. What this then does is it cancels out the added noise while keeping the original audio signal intact!

Image Source: Aviom.com

The best XLR cables will always utilize this special design technique. Some cables, such as the Mogami Gold series, actually use two pairs of conductors for even more effective noise cancellation. For professional audio, balanced XLR cables are mandatory.

Shielding

The best XLR cable will always be shielded. Shielding is another technique used by electrical design engineers to reduce added noise from RF interference.

How It Works

A shield is usually a braided mat or spiral of many smaller-gauge copper wires that wrap around the conductors. Some shields are also made of aluminum Mylar foil, and some cables contain both a braid and a foil shield for maximum effectiveness

Radiation in all forms, including RF radiation that adds noise to our audio signals, is made up of coupled magnetic and electric fields. An electric field will create forces on the electrons of the atoms in the shield. When the shield is exposed to an electric field at the surface, it moves the charged electrons to create an electrical current. This movement, in turn, generates its own electric field which then cancels out the applied electric field and stops it from reaching the signal conductors. The induced current in the shield is then grounded. In this way, the shield absorbs the RF interference and diverts the energy away from the signal conductor.

Strain-Relief Connectors

The XLR cable’s connectors are very important for long term reliability. That is because many low-quality cables will break at the connectors. The best XLR cable will always utilize a connector design that eliminates stress on the soldiers that connect the conductors to the pins. Neutrik makes one of the best strain-relief connectors, called the Neutrik XX.

Image Source: Neutrik.com – Neutrik XX 3-pin Male XLR connector

Jacket & Contact Material

The best XLR cable will use a jacket material that is durable and resistant to abrasion and cuts. The jacket material will also be flexible to allow the cable to be oriented in many positions during live performances. For this application, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a great choice for the jacket material. Here is a rundown of common cable jacket materials:

  • PVC (polyvinyl chloride) – very common, low-cost, flexible and resists mild chemicals like oil and water. Also has flame-retardant properties
  • PE (polyethylene) – also common, but can be more rigid unless it is the low-density (LDPE) variant
  • PUR (polyurethane) – usually found in coiled cables, and is very flexible
  • TPE (thermoplastic elastomer) – flexible, abrasion resistant, and chemical resistant

The contacts (pins) are the parts of the XLR cable connector that connects directly to the hardware. They must be very conductive to effectively transfer the signal through the connector. They must also be able to resist corrosion. As the contact material corrodes, the signal transferring ability of the contacts degrades. This can lead to distortion of the audio signal. Gold and silver or silver-nickel alloy are the best choices for contact materials.

  • Gold – less conductive than silver or silver nickel-alloy, but more resistant to corrosion
  • Silver or silver-nickel – more conductive than gold, but less resistant to corrosion

Wrap Up

We covered a lot of information here on modern day XLR cables. They’ve come a long way since their distant relatives were invented by James H. Cannon in the 1940s. Some of the more important features of these specialized cables are shielding, jacket and contact material, balancing, and connector design. The best XLR cable manufacturers will always keep these in mind to best serve the consumers and professions that use them.

 

How to Keep Your Identity Safe from Unwanted Calls

Are you constantly receiving calls from random 1-800 telemarketers? The fact is mobile spam calls have become a nuisance in recent decades, and as a matter of fact, it feels like there has been a surge of them in the last few months.

We have to deal with a new barrage of spam calls every single day.  Robocallers have evolved over the years and new trends have emerged. Today, telemarketers mask their robocalls with, genuine looking phone numbers. And it’s funny how sometimes their nonsense can be amusing-picture when you get a voicemail that is disguised as a threat to arrest you over owed back taxes. Well, this can be quite an unwelcome distraction and the Internet of things has made it very easy for scammers to fire off endless calls!

source: consumerreports.org

So if you are as sick and tired as I am, pulling your phone out of your pouch only to see some strange telemarketer’s number, let’s see some options for fighting back and restoring some sense of peace.

But first, how do telemarketers get your number anyway? Here are four facts that might surprise you.

1. You share your number way too much

source: dailyexcelsior.com

Whenever you fill out a form, whether online or offline, there’s a chance that all information you provide ends up with someone else. Remember when you fill out a form for that annual contest entry? Or sign up for an online service eying that discount or in-store credit?

Well, anytime you give out your phone number out there, you expose yourself to spamming risk.

2. You accept Terms of Use blindly

There’s a surge in the number of mobile apps in our stores and all they are interested in is harvesting as much personal data so they can sell it to willing buyers (and there are tons of them). So next time you think of downloading that fancy flashlight utility app you found on Play Store or App Store be sure to check what permissions the app is requesting to access before installing it.

3. Big data has killed privacy

source: idee.net

Just so you know, computers nowadays are so strong and fast that they can crawl every web page on the internet searching for data points. In a snap, computers can now collate nearly every piece of information available on the internet about anyone. Whether it is that Facebook post you liked a week ago or that tweet you sent earlier today. Nothing is hidden from these electronic brains. As a matter of fact, just search for yourself on Pipl.com and you will be amazed at the number of companies that claim to have your personal information out there.

4. Robots can make a zillion random calls in a blink

It’s not news that there are more automated calls today than there were a decade ago. It’s interesting how robots can process a zillion numbers to come up with random phone numbers which they use to make automated calls to unsuspecting receivers and I can bet my bottom dollar that you have fallen victim of automated calls at one point in your life.

Restore some sense of peace with an anonymous number

source: reedesignweb.com

While there are a couple of measures you can take to protect your personal data, the ultimate solution to stopping annoying robocalls is proposed by dealfuel.com and it is called the Hushed private phone line app. This app gives you access to anonymous phone numbers that you can use instead of your real phone number when filling out forms either online or offline. The good thing is that you will still be reachable to your near and dear ones through your existing phone number. The difference here though is that when someone tries to reach you through the anonymous number, you’ll answer via the Hushed number instead of your real phone number.

What this means is that you will keep your real identity secret and still receive calls from people that you’d like to hear from, like that warm Uber representative explaining that you won a free ride to your favourite destination.

With the Hushed app, you will enjoy every moment your phone rings even when an unknown international number pops up.

Proxy Phone Numbers and Services

source: talkroute.com

The most interesting thing about owning a proxy number is not only the anonymity it brings, but also the freedom it offers especially when surfing the internet. You can share your phone number with anyone whether online or offline without necessarily having to worry about the privacy concerns associated with sharing personal phone numbers. What’s more? You don’t have to purchase a second phone!

Here’s the thing, some proxy phone apps offer a second phone number (sometimes temporary). Others provide the option of adding several different phone numbers to manage several lines from one central app. Either way, most proxy phone apps are designed to allow for communication either through, talk, text or picture sharing just like a regular phone operates.

Proxy Phone numbers Allow You to Erase All Contacts any time

source: dailydot.com

Now this is where it gets even better. Picture this, you filled out an online form that required your phone number in order to submit. Luckily this time you provided the proxy number you obtained from Hushed.  Now you are receiving an avalanche of promotional text messages from telemarketers who are convinced that you are a fertile ground to harvest. Or countless phone calls from several sketchy callers.

Did you know that on top of ignoring their insistent calls and text messages, you can also keep them at bay for good by deleting the number they are calling you from?

This means that the Hushed private phone number app gives you an added layer of security that you need to stay in control of your communication. The anonymous number you get will mask you from scams and cover you from nauseating calls from telemarketers.

Volante Vision – a futuristic flying taxi

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Aston Martin is a huge brand and name in the automotive industry and it always strives to make something new and luxurious. This time, this company has revealed its ideas and plans to make a luxurious taxi, but the one that could fly. They have made it into a concept and called it the Volante Vision Concept. We would be able to know more about the entire concept during the Farnborough Air Show.

Design and Performances

One of the best features of this aircraft would be the possibility to have vertical take-off and landing. Regarding the engine itself, there would be a hybrid-electrical engine and the engine is expected to be paired up with several propellers. The turboprop is expected to be at the back of the unit. We should also add an interesting thing about its exterior design and it is a Y-wing at its front, and it could have dual propellers with the ability to tilt and rotating.

Img source: theweek.co.uk

Luxury

Since we are talking about Aston Martin, it is expected that the manufacturer would make this aircraft as luxurious as possible. The navigation included would be autonomous and there would also be cockpit canopy that would be made entirely of glass. It has been decided to make this aircraft to be used by rich people and all those who would like to have luxurious air-taxi at any moment.

Partnership

It should be added that Aston Martin is not making it alone since they do not have any experience in the industry, and this is the reason why they are collaborating with Rolls-Royce. Why? Well, Rolls-Royce has similar projects of its own in development. So, the competition for this type of clientele would be fierce.

10 reasons to consider software outsourcing to Ukraine

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Software outsourcing to Ukraine gains popularity day by day with Ukrainian developers recognized as an ideal investment by companies all over the world. The country is close to Western states by the mentality and has a convenient time zone; it hosts a large pool of talented coders ready to work for highly affordable rates and is ideal for clients seeking optimal outsourcing solutions in many other ways. Experts of Qubit Labs dig deeper into the causes of Ukraine’s software outsourcing solutions being the preferred choice of a growing number of clients.

Ideal Time Zone

Ukraine is located close to most European countries, which ensures a minimal time difference of 1-2 hours allowing a significant overlap of the in-house and outsource teams’ working time. Thus, when hiring programmers from Ukraine, European companies can count on a great blend of their teams and dedicated teams. The time difference with the USA is bigger, but still, you can get 2-3 hour overlap.

Impressive Talent Pool

According to the latest stats, Ukraine offers a huge talent pool in the IT sector exceeding 160,000 professionals. Thus, in the conditions of rising coder rates and reducing the availability of required tech stack in major Western states, such a pool of talent is a rich source of staffing solutions.

Img source: kultprosvet.net

Advanced Tech Education

Besides having over 160 thousand qualified working developers, Ukraine also invests heavily into the expansion of this talent pool by offering highly advanced, competitive higher technical education. As a result of such a strong national focus on education yields over 36,000 tech graduates ready to enter the professional software development sector every year. In such a situation, foreign clients are always spoilt for choice.

Good Command of English

Ukrainian developers are known for advanced knowledge of English; such proficiency allows more effective communication in the process of work and simplifies the software outsourcing collaboration.

Convenience for Travel

Ukraine is convenient for foreign businesses in many ways; first, there are numerous international airports to which clients may come from all corners of the world to visit their dedicated teams. Second, the rates for travel are affordable and the timing is also comfortable, with trips from major European cities to Kyiv taking 1-3 hours at most.

Cost/Benefit Balance

Rates for software development is highly competitive in Ukraine, while the tech stack and experience of developers are advanced. Thus, companies hiring coders here always get the most for their money.

Img source: 112.international

Developed IT Outsourcing Sector

The Ukrainian software outsourcing sector responds to the rising demand for Ukrainian developers with active development and a vibrant tech community. The country hosts over 1,000 software development enterprises, dozens of staffing vendors, and witnesses a realm of tech startups.

Good Cultural Fit

Ukraine is culturally close to Europe, so there is no cultural incongruence in establishing multinational project teams.

Favorable Environment for International Businesses

Ukraine has a highly favorable business climate fostering direct investment and encouraging the collaboration of Ukrainian workforce with Western companies. Thus, foreign clients find low taxes, affordable rental rates, and other benefits fostering business growth here.

Client-Oriented Business Approach

The last but not the least benefit that foreign enterprises see in hiring Ukrainian coders is the client-oriented approach of outsourcing vendors. While freelancers often act irresponsibly and disappear from projects, Ukrainian developers enjoy favorable reviews worldwide in terms of responsibility and accountability with clients. Moreover, due to the cultural homogeneity of the country, there are only 11 paid holidays during which the employees don’t work. As compared to other outsourcing destinations, this number is the smallest.

Become a Cyber-Security Expert

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To protect the organizations from security breaches and data attacks, Cybersecurity professionals are present in every company or industry. There is a high demand for cybersecurity professionals which is growing continuously. Cybersecurity job position has grown tremendously fast as compared to other IT job roles in the market. This field involves various career paths before you choose one for you. Few of them are

  • Security Consultant
  • Security Architect
  • Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)
  • Penetration Tester/Ethical Hacker

What do you mean by a Cyber-Security Specialist?

The Cybersecurity expert program consists of specialists play a major role in securing the information systems by detecting, monitoring, analyzing, investigating and responding to security events. These cybersecurity specialists also safeguard the systems from threats, risks, etc. These specialists work in teams and are dedicated to secure the integrity of the network and data in the business. The increasing success rate of cyber-security specialist has turned this profession into a necessity over luxury.

Tips to become a Cyber Security Expert

Img source: thenextweb.com

To become a Cybersecurity expert, one needs to have a problem-solving attitude with strategies of creating solutions. This profession includes a set of activities such as building, designing and implementing network along with creating difficult security structures and able to make it function properly.

  • One needs to earn a bachelor’s degree in Information technology, computer science, cybersecurity or a related field.
  • One needs to enter the IT field as a systems administrator, network administrator or security administrator,
  • One needs to be promoted to a mid-level role as an analyst or a security engineer
  • One need to enter a security architect role.

Benefits of getting into Cyber Security certification

There are few benefits of getting into cybersecurity; they are as follows

  • The unlimited growth – Cybersecurity shows the ultimate growth potential in the market with an ever-expanding scope. This is beneficial for one’s career path as well as the learning opportunities. This skill set is linked to all the other skills sets in IT. A cybersecurity professional would grasp as much as possible on how the organization and technologies work.
  • Growth varieties – The growth of opportunities is tied to a variety of technologies and the situation that security professionals need to deal with. If there is the usage of zero, it is the case of cybersecurity component, and some roles even extend to physical security. These security professionals get the chance to work with direct teams on various technologies and systems which they have never dreamt of. The variety is near to infinite as it includes robots to cars to the websites that serve millions of users.
Img source: thinkrcg.com
  • Puzzle solving activity – Once you add together the technology growth and varieties, you can imagine the variations of puzzles that a cybersecurity professional has to deal with. In cybersecurity, first preference is generally given to the tried and tested principles, but the problem-solving tactics and always change. However, there is always a new puzzle which needs to be solved by the cybersecurity professional.
  • Real impact in the job – Cybersecurity is not an easy job which everyone can aim for; it matters to be a cybersecurity profession. The impact is beyond the digital world and into the physical world. This is the highlight of importance and a terrifying and exciting prospect at the same time.
  • Start learning– Cybersecurity has two logical advantages for a strong and better career: it has low to no unemployment, and a solid compensation

What do the Cyber-Security courses include?

Simplilearn showcased the Cyber Security expert program that helps the professional with the foundational, intermediate and advanced level of skills the leading certification courses which include CEH, CISM, CompTIA Security+, CCSP, and CISSP. This program begins with the introduction of cybersecurity training skills and proceeds to advanced level of cybersecurity technologies, such as penetration testing techniques, reverse engineering and so on.

Img source: tobiasandtobias.com
  • Implementing technical strategies, tools, and techniques to safeguard the data and information for the organization
  • Stick with the ethical security behavior for mitigation and risk analysis.
  • Understanding the security of cloud computing architecture in details.
  • Understand the legal requirements along with the privacy issues and audit process methodologies.
  • Focus on IT compliance to establish IT framework to secure the enterprises.

These were some of the benefits to learn about Cybersecurity expert programs to become a professional cybersecurity analyst and to achieve the expertise about security programs. Simultaneously, these security programs also help you in learning the importance and the necessity of having Cybersecurity in a firm. As every firm are exposed to risks, learning cybersecurity programs will help you in implementing proper controls in place and mitigate all sorts of risks involved in processing data. You can research online as well as you can contact an expert or a profession who has expertise in handling cybersecurity teams.

Database Testing: What is it and How can it Help?

The database testing service will allow minimizing risks when the system is put into commercial operation. You can check in advance the correctness and safety of the database.

In the process of testing the database, the operation of the application database is checked for compliance with functional and non-functional requirements. Applications that include a database in their architecture require a database testing procedure, for example, corporate information systems, mobile and web applications.

Database Performance Testing

According to Enteros.com, database performance testing is a decisive factor in the effectiveness of managerial and commercial applications. If searching or writing data is slow, the ability to run the application usually falls. There is only one way to find out the cause of poor performance – to make quantitative measurements and determine what is causing the performance problem.

The problems of identifying bottlenecks in database performance are directly related to metrics, performance measurement methods and the technology for their implementation. For large corporations and large databases, the problem of determining database performance has another critical aspect: the definition of IT infrastructure for the long-term commercial operation of applications. This ultimately leads to a more accurate determination of the initial investment in hardware and necessary software. Since the high performance of the database is highly dependent on the platform and equipment, and they are purchased and operated for the long term.

Img source: lynda.com

The most important metrics for measuring DB performance are:

  • the number of transactions over a period of time (various types of transactions);
  • the number of I/O operations (read lines) per transaction and its execution time;
  • the number of rows reads for each table per transaction;
  • SQL statements high working cost CPU usage time (user, system)
  • operator start and end time
  • the time to perform sorting operations (the number of sorts, the number of overflows of sorts, the time taken to perform sorts), the highest use of elapsed time and the least efficient use of indexes.

Memory usage metrics for pages of tablespaces and buffer pools (for reading data, for reading indexes), for performing sorting, for running utilities, for directories and cache memory packages, along with performance measurement metrics, are also important for effective access to according to.

What else to check when testing the database?

Data mapping

Make sure that the connections in the database correspond to the project documentation. For all CRUD operations, check that the corresponding tables and records are updated when the user clicks Save, Update, Search, or Delete from the application GUI.

ACID transaction properties

ACID transaction properties include atomicity, consistency, isolation, and strength. In the process of testing the database should check these four properties. This area requires more thorough testing if the database is distributed.

Img source: loginworks.com

Data integrity

Note that different application modules (for example, screens and forms) use the same data differently and perform CRUD operations. Therefore, you need to make sure that the last state of the data is reflected everywhere in the same way. The system should display updated values on all forms and screens. This is called data integrity.

The accuracy of business logic implementation

Today, databases are not just for storing records. They have become very powerful tools that provide developers with ample opportunities for implementing business logic at the database level. Examples of powerful database functions are “referential integrity,” relational constraints, triggers, and stored procedures. Thus, using these and many other features offered by the database, the developers implement business logic at the database level. The tester needs to make sure that the business logic is correct.

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