Science

The Double Jeopardy Law: A Serious Risk When Tried for a Federal Crime

For those facing criminal charges, they want to leave the whole ordeal behind once the trial is over.

According to the Constitution, the Fifth Amendment protects a person from being tried for the same crime twice. But is a person safe from being tried again?

Surprisingly, for anyone charged with a federal crime, they can be tried twice.

Because of this, it’s best to find a reliable defense attorney the first time around, for it is brought back to court, they’re going to have to fight to save your case again, but this time the prosecutors will know your defense strategy, which can complicate things.

In this article, criminal defense attorney Rahul Balaram, of Balaram Law Office, answers this question.

What Is Federal Double Jeopardy?

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Double jeopardy occurs when a person is tried for the same crime, part of that same crime, or overlapping crimes more than once.

The Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment ensures that no person will ever be tried for a crime they’ve committed once they’ve been acquitted, convicted, served their punishment, or gone through a mistrial.

Federal double jeopardy is, in a way, prohibited by the Constitution. However, that doesn’t mean a person can’t be tried for the same crime twice.

Because federal and state courts are two different sovereignties, a case can be passed from one to another, which essentially creates a loophole that allows suits to be tried one level and then moved to the next to be tried again.

Is There a Difference Between State and Federal Double Jeopardy?

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Just like on the federal level, the Double Jeopardy Clause applies to the state courts, as well. In other words, there’s not much difference between the two; if a person is convicted of a crime in the state courts, they cannot be sentenced again by the state courts.

So, a Person Can Have Two Convictions?

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Because of the loophole that allows crimes to be tried again, a person technically can have two convictions for the same crime. It’s just that one would be through the state courts, and the other is through the federal courts.

In June of 2019, the Supreme Court reasserted the validity of this exception by declaring that both sovereignties can try a person for violations of federal and state laws, even if some aspects overlap.

Why the Right Defense is Crucial

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Given how complicated court systems can be if you’re facing a hefty sentence—or possibly more than one—you must have the right defense by your side.

The right attorney can help guide you through the processes, knows the ins and outs of the courts, and stays on the balls of their feet to ensure nothing slips by. They can adjust their defense strategy, as necessary, and have a few loopholes up their sleeves to help you avoid a conviction—or two.

The origin of Double Jeopardy

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The idea behind res judicata is old, dating back to 355 BC Athens, Greece. The first legal courts in the western world affirmed that “the law prohibits the same man from being sentenced twice for the same crime.” This clause has survived through the centuries, having stood the test of time through various judicial systems dating from Athens and the Roman Empire to the Middle Ages, the English courts, and the rise of the West.

The concept was not without limitations and abuses, especially in England before the colonization of America. The colonists of America expanded on the definition and made sure that the concept applies to more than just capital crimes. The text was eventually modified to clarify its meaning and is used today by a defense attorney as a means of avoiding undue punishment for the same crime.

The Penal Reform

Source: smartdatacollective.com

It is the most profound transformation that has been made in the area of ​​justice. The following are its advantages:

1. Expands the rights of the victim or offended

When there is a crime, the victim or offended person is the main affected; For this reason, the new Criminal Justice System strengthens your rights. From now on, the victim has a legal advisor throughout the process to be correctly oriented. Similarly, it becomes an essential and active part, which can provide evidence and participate directly in the case.

2.Implements oral trials

Previously, criminal proceedings were carried out in writing. One of the most significant advantages is that today, all the information is presented in oral and public hearings, in which both parties submit their statements.

3. Control Judge

Also, there is a Control Judge. He is in charge of supervising that the entire investigation process is under the law. He is a participant who acts neutrally; On the one hand, it rectifies that the arrest of the accused is legal and fair, and also, ensures that the victims are heard and taken into account.

4. Depressurizes the judicial system

The processes are now shorter since there are effective ways to streamline the criminal process; therefore, reparation of the harm to the victim is also accomplished in less time.

5. Protects the human rights of victims and accused persons

The authorities involved must guarantee that the rights of both the victim and the accused are respected. That is called “due process,” and the penal system needs to function effectively.

How Double Jeopardy Protects Defendants

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A person who commits a crime must be prosecuted and punished for that crime; However, the judicial system must not punish that person unfairly or in a way that is greater than what the crime mandates. It comes into play if a crime is committed, and a defendant is charged with the same complaint by more than one person or group. All claims can be heard, but only one punishment is represented as a single crime was committed. A defense attorney uses this clause to ensure that the defendant receives a fair trial and punishment.

So, to highlight it once again, anyone facing more serious criminal charges should seek the advice of excellent criminal defense attorneys. If a case results in multiple charges or if a complaint is filed after an acquittal, the defendant may be able to use the double-risk defense. Dedicated defense attorneys understand the importance of Fifth Amendment protection and will use it within the framework of a fair legal, criminal defense, and appropriate sentencing.

How to Use Time Management Software in Your Classroom

Have you ever met a teacher who hadn’t struggled with time management, ever in their career? We are yet to meet such a phenomenon. Most of the teachers that we know keep asking for a bit more time after the end of class. They forgot to mention the homework, they haven’t finished speaking, or they left some questions unanswered.

Let’s be honest: one class gives plenty of time for them to go through all points of their lectures. Just ask the students. They feel like a class lasts for an eternity.

When the teacher manages their time properly, they will manage to cover all points, leave some time for discussion, and answer the questions they get. When the class goes smoothly and as planned, the students won’t even notice how it went. They won’t be bored!

If you’re one of those teachers struggling to compress the lecture and side activities within a class, you should consider the option of using time management software.

What Is Time Management Software?

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Time management is a well-known concept. It is defined as a “process of organizing and planning how to divide your time between specific activities.”

Most teachers have a general understanding of time management. They know that they have to cover an entire lecture within 50 minutes or so, depending on the schedule. They briefly go through the points that they should mention.

But do they plan how to fill in each section of the class with specific activities? We don’t often see that. It’s the kind of effective time management that different tools can help us to achieve.

This is where we get to the need to use the software. It’s a complete solution that allows teachers to create schedules, set dates, and log hours. It enables them to note absences, plan activities, and have control over each section of the class.

Some of the best options include:

  • Evernote for noting down important things and keeping all notes organized
  • Dropbox for quickly sharing large files with students
  • Toggl for keeping track of time spent on each task and project
  • Remember the Milk for noting down important things to cover throughout the lecture
  • Rescue Time for controlling browsing habits during class
  • Google Calendar for noting down deadlines for assignments

Now, the question is: how do you use time management software in the classroom?

We’re getting there.

Tips for Teachers: Using Time Management Software in the Classroom

  1. Choose Your Tool
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Google Calendar is great for setting deadlines. You will probably assign research projects, essays, and other major assignments throughout the term. Mark them in the calendar, and share the dates with your students. Teach them how to use the tool, so it will give them reminders to start working on the projects ahead of time.

Then, choose a tool that helps you manage a single class. Toggl is a good one. You will set a timeframe for each task that you need to cover during the class. Then, the tool will measure the time you spend on it, so you’ll know when you should move on to the next point.

  1. Set Goals (Based on Priorities)
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You have a few goals to cover throughout a single class:

  • Teach the lecture

If you’re using slides or other technical aids, calculate the time you’ll need to set up the laptop and everything else that you need.

  • Listen to your students

Did they understand everything? Do they have any questions?

  • Inspire a discussion

The tool you use should remind you not to get carried away by teaching and answering questions. You should always make space for creative discussions and activities.

  1. Always Leave Time to Explain Homework Assignments
Source: college-homework-help.org

Professors often forget about this responsibility. They wait until the class ends, and they say: “I almost forgot: you’ll have to submit a cause-and-effect essay by next week. The theme is today’s lecture. Choose any topic associated with it.”

According to the writers at AU-AssignmentHelp.com, unclear instructions are the most common reason why students buy papers online. Professors don’t take the time to guide them through different assignments. Set up your tool to remind you about the need to explain each homework task after giving the lecture.

  1. Analyze Your Achievements
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When you start using time management software, you won’t always achieve all goals that you set. Maybe you’ll plan to explain more points, but you’ll get carried away with one of them. Maybe the discussion among students will take its own turn, so you won’t find the time to guide them through the homework assignment.

It’s okay.

It’s all about learning by trying. After each class, analyze your achievements. How many of the goals did you reach? If you notice that you’re repeating the pattern, it means that you’ll have to adjust the pace of your teaching.

Maybe you can skip some of the digressions and focus only on the main points. You can share materials that will get in more detail. Be realistic with your lesson plans. Follow your own pace, don’t get too ambitious, and pack your plan with as many tasks as it can take without being overwhelming to the students.

  1. Stay Flexible
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The downside of using time management software is that you may take it too seriously. You’ll have precise tasks on your list, and you’ll start the timer to track the time you spend on each of them.

What if your students ask important questions and digress you from the flow? That should never make you nervous. The plan is just for guidance. It will make you more effective. It should never turn you into one of those rigid professors that impose boring rules.

Feel the Rhythm of Your Students

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Before making a plan, you should always evaluate what your students already know. That’s where you’ll start from. If you notice that they have gaps in their knowledge, plan to cover them throughout your following lectures.

Time management software is a great thing! It will inspire you to adjust your pace, stick to the important things, and minimize digressions as much as possible.

But remember: flexibility is of key importance!

How DNA test can provide a more complete look at one’s overall health?

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A human body is a very complex, amazing machine. It works non-stop to keep us going until our last breath. It has been quite the journey discovering the little nuances in the ways in which the body works; every day we make progress to discovering more. Luckily, a complete guide is available that has all the information you need in order to make better choices for your health. This guide is available to everyone. This guide is internal, and it’s called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA for short. A simple short explanation: it is the blueprint which tells your cells which protein(s) to make, and in turn, is the main determining factor how your body will function.

It’s quite fascinating how DNA can tell a lot of things about you and your body. It provides information on the probability of possible illness in the future. Not just that, but it can also help guide you to make a smarter choice for your health. There are different types of DNA tests which will tell you different things about your body. With the advent of the at-home-DNA-test, anyone can get one done in the comfort and privacy of their own home. For your own benefit, get a complete round-up of your genetic profile on this site with a DNA test; you might be surprised with what you discover!

Img source: cradlefoundation.org

What are the benefits of DNA testing?

DNAWeekly lists why this can be beneficial for several reasons. Sometimes it can be difficult to notice health problems externally. Potential risks might lie dormant inside your body, building up slowly, only to be detected at the last stage. With testing, you can determine unknown factors about your body which otherwise would not have been possible. Here just some main benefits:

1. It may reveal a [propensity towards a] disease or genetic condition. With this information, you can act proactively in order to deal with it. In this case, you should always consult with a doctor. Proper disease management should always be at the direction of a licensed medical professional.

2. Genetic mutations causing insidious enzyme deficiencies can be identified.  It is a lack of an important enzyme which regulates the body. Your doctor is always the best person to consult with this information.

3. Do you have sensitivities to certain foods?  Another benefit is it can advise you on which foods to avoid as well as other information which might affect one’s lifestyle. With this knowledge, you can adopt a lifestyle cognizant of the risk of health problems.

Now that you know the big benefits of having a DNA test done, you should give it some serious consideration!

Img source: upstatednatesting.com

What can DNA tell you about your health and body?

As already mentioned earlier, the results provide a great deal of knowledge about the body. Here’s just some of that information:

Heart problems

Results can alert you if you are at risk of developing a genetically inherited heart condition. This kind of information is actually very important, as your heart is one of the most crucial organs of your body. If there is any inherited genetic risk, you can find out about it with the help of a DNA test. Problems like high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and increased cholesterol levels can all be detected.

Hereditary cancer risks

Without testing, you will never get to know if you have a hereditary risk of cancer. Act before it’s too late! In order to avoid such situations, take a DNA test. This will provide you with important information about your hereditary genetics and if you are at potential risk of developing certain cancers such as colorectal or breast cancer.

Img source: thenational.ae

Nutritional deficiencies

You can also test for nutritional deficiencies in the body. This will help you prepare a diet suiting your specific needs. After all, the body’s absorption of the proper nutrients is very important. It has a major impact on the overall health of your body.

Osteoarthritis risks

With age, our joints tend to become weak. This may eventually lead to a lot of problems. However, some people may be more susceptible to developing osteoarthritis than others. This information can also be determined.

DNA tests can provide such valuable pieces of information! So much can be discovered about your health from your genetic blueprint. With this information, you can bring a positive change to your life! Now that you are informed, you should order your DNA test today and be better prepared for tomorrow (and maybe connect with distant relatives on the way)!

Significance of Data Science as an Interdisciplinary Program

The time when we talk about data science then without any second thoughts, we can say that it isn’t restricted to a single field and area of interest. The importance of data science has increasing day by day because of its manifold connections with other areas and disciplines.

Data Science as an Interdisciplinary Program

Data Science is developing as a troublesome significance of the digital revolt. Depends on the mixture of big data obtainability, refined data analysis methods, and ascendable computing infrastructures, Data Science is swiftly altering the way we do corporate, meet people, conduct research, and rule society.

Img Source: blog.learningtree.com

It is also varying the way scientific research is achieved. Model-driven methods are augmented with data-driven tactics. A new model appeared, where philosophies and models and the bottom up encounter of knowledge from data jointly support each other.

Experiments and examines over huge datasets are useful not only to the authentication of current philosophies and models, but also to the data-driven detection of patterns developing from data, which can aid scientists design better philosophies and models, yielding deeper comprehension of the intricacy of social, financial, natural, technical, ethnic and natural singularities.

Value of Data science Now a Day

Data science as we all know is becoming popular day by day and has a major role in various academic as well as practical fields. By learning data science and gaining an online master’s degree in data science, you can click here and one can learn a lot of about related a field that seem to be different but has a deep connection with data science in one way or another.

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All over the world data science is considered as an interdisciplinary and prevalent paradigm directing to turn data into knowledge, born at the juncture of a variety of scientific and technical areas such as databases and data mining, machine learning and artificial intelligence, text mining, complex systems and network science, statistics and statistical physics, natural language comprehension, applied mathematics. Remarkable advances are happening in data-driven pattern discovery, in automatic learning of prognostic models and in the analysis of multifaceted networks.

Nowadays, data scientists are initiating new grounds for investigation and research. They are investigating with intelligence meeting technologies and emerging refined models and algorithms, for the sake of supporting brands answer some of the biggest trials that they face.

Img Source: hiringlab.org

Data Science and its Growing Importance

As an interdisciplinary field, data science deals with courses and systems that are utilized to excerpt information or visions from large amounts of data. Here data that is taken out can be structured as well as unstructured. Apart from that data science is an extension of data analysis grounds such as data mining, statistics, predictive analysis.

It is a vast field; data science utilizes a lot of philosophies and methods that are a part of other grounds including information science, mathematics, statics, chemo metrics, computer science, and many others.

Img Source: infoq.com

Following are some reasons that are significant for Data Science as an Interdisciplinary Program:

  • Data science benefits brands to get their consumers in a much boosted and authorized manner. There is no doubt about it that consumers are the soul and foundation of any brand and have a huge role to play in their achievement and failure. With the utilization of data science, brands can attach to their consumers in a personalized manner, thus safeguarding better brand power and commitment.
  • Another main and foremost reason why data science is attaining so much of attention is that it permits brands to convey their story in such an amazing and controlling manner. The time when brands and corporations use this data in an inclusive manner, they can share their story with their boarder audience, so making better brand connect. As we all know that nothing connects with trades like an operative and influential story, which can instruct all human sentiments.
  • There is another new area named as Big Data that is regularly improving and developing. With so many tools being settled, almost on a daily basis, big data is serving brands and organizations to fix multifaceted problems in IT, human resource, and resource management in an actual and planned manner. This means to say that an operational utilization of resources, both substantial and non-material.
  • Another significant aspect of data science is its findings and outcomes that can be implemented to nearly any sector such as travel, healthcare, and education between others. Comprehending the inferences of data science can go a long way in serving sectors to examine their trials and address them in an operative way.
  • Data science is available to almost all areas. There is a huge amount of information that is obtainable in the world today and using them in the best possible way can spell success and failure for products and administrations. By using data in the right manner you will be able to hold the key for attaining goals for products, particularly in the future.
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Conclusion

Without any doubt, it can be said that data science has a vast role in various areas and these subjects, programs, and courses that look different are deeply connected with data science.

NASA Has Reported That Antarctica Will Be Broken Off By An Iceberg Twice The Size Of New York City

Two images of the ice shelf, one taken on 30th January 1986, and the other taken on 23rd January 2019, were shared by NASA. The last image shows a long crack that is winding its way from the north to the south. NASA scientists want „to see if the loss will trigger the shelf to further change and possibly become unstable or break up.“
NASA’s Space Flight Center glaciologist, Joe MacGregor, explained that the stability of the entire shelf could be put at risk. The loss of ice in Antarctica has been sped up by global warming. In July 2017, an iceberg size of Delaware separated from the Larsen C Ice Shelf and it is the biggest so far. In October 2017, from the west to east along the top of the Brunt Ice Shelf, a rift was seen extending. Because of the October’s appearance, it has been named Halloween crack.

Img source: Adventure.com

Scientists worry about the crack traveling northward and claim that it was only a few more miles of lengthening before reaching the Halloween crack. When that happens, an iceberg twice the size of New York City will break off.
The Pine Island Glacier has been breaking off and dumping large quantities of ice into the sea more often than normal, which would affect the sea-level rise.
A glaciologist Chris Shuman for NASA and University of Maryland-Baltimore County (UMBC) said: „We don’t have a clear picture of what drives the shelf’s periods of advance and retreat through calving. The likely future loss of the ice on the other side of the Halloween crack suggests that more instability is possible, with associated risk to Halley Via.“
This would be the largest iceberg to beak from the Brunt Ice Shelf.

How to solve electromagnetic interference

Electromagnetic interference is usually described as an electrical noise that can enter electronic equipment from a radio signal or other sources. It usually shows up differently depending on what we’re talking about. If we talk about audio, electromagnetic interference can show up as a hiss or hum. In video, it shows up as scrambled pictures and static, and as errors in data networks. Although sources of electromagnetic interference are all around us, if we are careful enough with the installation and use of our equipment, we can effectively “eliminate” the trouble-causing EMI.

Sources of the EMI

The electromagnetic interference comes from the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electric equipment usually picks up such unwanted signals like television broadcasts and radio, as well as those that are produced by fluorescent lights. These signals are usually powerful enough to interfere with our audio gear, computers, TV’s and many other devices. When experts are designing equipment they spend a lot of time ensuring that electromagnetic interference will not be an issue.

source: pion.cz

Earth Ground as a key solution

One of the most common and key solutions for the elimination of EMI is the use of earth ground. A direct connection to an electrical outlet ground should do the trick. Or even a cold-water pipe. The grounding point will act like a sink in which the energy of the electromagnetic interference will drain. The EMI will usually follow “the path of least resistance”. A good reason why the more professional and electric equipment comes with a three-wire power plug, is because the grounding wire helps reduce electromagnetic interference.

Optical Link is a good solution

The optical fiber cables are totally immune to the electromagnetic interference solely because they transfer pulses of laser light instead of the standard electrical signals. Radio and EMI will have no effect on these optical signals. However, fiber optics can be expensive when compared to copper wire.

What is a Balanced Line?

Long audio cables, for example, those made for microphones or guitars, are usually very prone to picking up the buzzing noises caused by electromagnetic interference. A connection that is called a “Balanced Line” will solve this problem. If you don’t know what this is already, it’s a connection that uses two wires that both carry signals which are equally strong but they have the opposite polarity. Any electromagnetic interference that enters the cable will appear as a positive signal on both of the wires. At the receiving end, a circuit will subtract both signals and will significantly reduce if not entirely eliminate the noise caused by EMI.

source: fossbytes.com

Metal shielding

A metal shield or a screen will block the interference, especially if its barrier is connected to the ground. If we look at audio and video cables, for example, they have an inner conductor that is surrounded by a braided shield on the outward layer. The electromagnetic interference will enter the shield and will flow directly to the ground instead of messing with our signals that the cable is carrying. The best protection from EMI is a box called a Faraday cage. This cage is made out of a grounded metal sheet, hardware cloth or a wire, and it completely surrounds electronic devices, blocking all of external EMI. Faraday cages are largely used in science, industry and even medicine.