History - Page 3

Anne Frank and her diary – 7 Things you didn’t know

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One of the bestselling books ever, “Anne Frank’s diary” was written during the Second World War, by the Jewish girl Anneliese Marie Frank. Anne was hiding from the Nazis with her family, in one house in Amsterdam, for more than two years. Today, Anne Frank’s house is one of the most visited places in Amsterdam. Here are the 7 facts you didn’t know about Anne Frank’s diary

1. Frank family was hiding for more than two years

img source: gypsywithadayjob.com

For two years and 35 days, Anne was hiding in the house in Amsterdam, unable to feel the rain or sun, to see the sky and clouds, without a possibility to go out for a walk at all. She was in the company of her parents Edith and Otto and her sister Margot. Soon, four more Jews joined them, and one of them was a boy called Peter with whom Anne fall in love with.

img source: annefrank.org

During those two years, Anne was doing everything to entertain herself, like reading books and studying European literature and history, playing different games, curling her hair and etc.

2. The most popular diary of all times (arguably)

Anne Frank’s diary became a part of the Unesco’s Memory of the World Register in 2009. The diary was published for the first time in Holland in 1947 as Het Achterhuis: Dagboekbrieven 12 Juni 1942–1 Augustus 1944. First edition had 1500 copies, and since then the book was translated into more than 60 languages.

The original notebook Anne turned into a diary was a present Anne got for her third birthday. The notebook itself was chosen by Anne and had red and white covers.

img source: kgsorkney.com

3. Becoming a famous writer was one of Anne’s dreams

Anne was always interested in writing and literature and she was dreaming of going back to school. In her diary, on 11th of May 1944, she wrote she wants to become “a journalist, and later on a famous writer”. Her diary eventually made her as one of the most famous bestseller writers in the world.

4. Two months after the Allied landings in Normandy, Frank’s family was discovered by the police

On 6th of June 1944, Anne wrote: “Is this really the beginning of the long-awaited liberation?” Following the illegal program of BBC and Radio Oranje, Franks family was informed about the Allied landings in Normandy, but unfortunately, they didn’t have the luck to survive until the end.

5. Margot Betti Frank (Anne’s sister) wrote a diary as well

Anne’s older sister, Marie Frank was also writing a diary, but unfortunately, the diary was never found. A three years older Anne’s sister Margot was more studious than Anne.

img source: Pinterest

6. BBC broadcast made Anna Frank rewrote the diary

The Dutch minister of education, art, and science, Gerrit Bolkestein spoke to the Dutch people thanks to the Radio Oranje and BBC program. The program who was broadcast illegally on 28th of March 1944. On this occasion, he announced his plan to collect the stories from the Dutch people about their experience of the war, and Anne started rewriting her diary immediately, keeping the first and private one for herself.

7.Anne’s death date is still unknown

Anonymous source betrayed Anne’s hiding place to German authorities, and they were unfortunately arrested on 4th of August 1944 by the Gestapo.

Based on the resources, Anne was sent to the transit camp in the Netherlands first, the Westerbork, and later deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. More than 1 million people were killed in Auschwitz, and around 90% of them were Jews.

Later, Margot and Anne were transferred from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belsen. According to this concentration camp resources, there were two girls who died from typhus just before the camp was liberated (15th of April 1945). The identity of the girls isn’t known but there are assumptions the girls were Anne and her sister Margot.

Viking Runes: Everything to Know About Them and Their Hidden Meanings

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Runes are enigmatic symbols which were left by the Vikings on a countless number of documents in wood, stone and metal. These letters, as they’re believed to have played a crucial part in the lives of the Vikings, have been attracting attention for years. These mysterious symbols seem to give us a valuable insight into the life of the Viking people and thus, we all want to know more about them. Here’s everything you should know about the runes and their hidden meanings.

Runes: What Are They and What’s Their Meaning?

Runes are the letters of the runic alphabet which date back to 1st or 2nd Century AD. The runic alphabet is a system of symbols which was developed and used by Germanic people. The runic alphabet is also known as the futhark as the first letter of it are – f, u, þ, a, r, k.

The runic alphabet, or the futhark, has three main forms, Elder Futhark, Younger Futhark, and Anglo-Saxon Futhorc. Elder Futhark, used between 100 and 800 AD, had 24 characters. Younger Futhark, which is also known as Scandinavian Runes, used during the Viking Age before being Latinised in the Christian era, had 16 characters. Last but not least, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc which was used in England had 33 characters.

Img source: ballzbeatz.com

These are the names and meanings of the 16 runes of the Younger Futhark:

• ᚠfé (“wealth”)
• ᚢúr (“iron”/”rain”)
• ᚦ Thurs (“giant”)
• ᚬAs/Oss (a Norse God)
• ᚱreið (“ride”)
• ᚴkaun (“ulcer”)
• ᚼhagall (“hail”)
• ᚾnauðr (“need”)
• ᛁísa/íss (“ice”)
• ᛅár (“plenty”)
• ᛋsól (“sun”)
• ᛏTýr (a Norse God)
• ᛒbjörk/bjarkan/bjarken (“birch”)
• ᛘmaðr (“man”)
• ᛚlögr (“sea”)
• ᛦyr (“yew”)

The spoken language of the Vikings was Old Norse which was passed down orally. However, in the 13th century, it became being written down by scribes. This implies that the Vikings were all illiterate. However, the runic alphabet seems to have been widely understood as there have been thousands of runestones found all over the Scandinavian countryside.

Img source: jelldragon.com

Runestones

The runic inscriptions were written on stones, which became known as runestones. These stones, including boulders or bedrock, were covered with runic inscriptions during the 10th and 11th centuries, which are considered to be the Viking Age.

Viking runes which were written on the runestones were discovered to be memorials to departed men. One of the most famous runestones can be found in Södermanland, Sweden. This runestone is known as Kjula Runestone. This runestone has an inscription of an Old Norse poem in the alliterative poetic meter known as fornyrðislag. This poem is about a man known for extensive warfare and was known as Spear. The stone is considered to be raised by Spear’s son in memory of his father.

The Kjula Runestone shows that Viking runestones served as a celebration of Viking values. Some of their most respected values were considered to be heroism, valor, and honor.

World War I – 20 Interesting Facts

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This year is a 100-year anniversary of World War I ending and important political figure gathered in France earlier in the year. It was the biggest war the world has ever seen at that point and there are plenty of things you should know about it. Here are 20 interesting facts about WWI.

20. World War I was massive and over 65 million men from 30 different countries were fighting. At the end, almost 10 million casualties were counted. The Allies lost around 6 million soldiers, while The Central Powers suffered the loss of 4 million.

19. The British categorized their tanks as males and females. The former came with cannons, while the latter had heavy machine guns.

18. The most successful pilot in the war was German warrior Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen. He was known as Red Baron, but he was eventually shot down near Amiens. He knocked down 75 enemy planes.

img source: stripes.com

17. Woodrow Wilson ran for president with the slogan “He kept us out of war”. A month after he took office, the US declared war on Germany.

img source: bbci.co.uk

16. Most people died in battles, but the Spanish flu was responsible for 33% of military deaths.

15. Even though the United States joined this war as it was drawing to a close, the country spent over $30 billion.

14. Thousands of soldiers who survived were disfigured and disabled. Some even had to spend their entire lives in nursing homes, despite reconstructive surgery that was performed at the time.

13. World War I is the sixth deadliest conflict in the history of humankind.

12. The world map changed significantly after the war ended. Four empires collapsed: Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman.

11. Today, World War I goes under several different names. These include the Great War, the World War, the War of the Nations, the War to End All Wars.

10. World War I started on June 28, 1914 when Serbian Gavrilo Princip killed Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

img source: awesomestories.com

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and they were supported by Germany.
Serbia on the other hand received support by Russia and France, but they suffered lots of casualties and were forced to withdraw all the way to Greece on foot through the mountains of Albania.

9. German trenches included bunk beds, furniture, cupboards, water tanks, electric lights and even doorbells. They were built to last.

8. Despite the popular belief, it was France, not Germany, that used gas against enemy troops.

7. During the war, the United States sent about 7.5 million tons of supplies to France, including 70,000 horses, approximately 50,000 trucks, 27,000 freight cars and 1,800 locomotives.

6. Interestingly enough, the American decided to rename hamburgers (named after the German city of Hamburg) to Salisbury steak. Frankfurters were also renamed to liberty sausages!

5. Millions of soldiers who survived the war suffered what is known as “shell shock”. This is a post-traumatic stress disorder, which isn’t surprising considering the horrors they have seen. The soldiers would stop speaking, they couldn’t sleep, and they whimpered for hours and twitched uncontrollably. Some of them managed to recover, but the others couldn’t.

4. Native Americans didn’t receive the US citizenship until 1924 but almost 13,000 served in World War I.

3. Over 500,000 pigeons carried messages between headquarters and the front lines. They were trained to do so. They were dropped into the occupied areas by parachutes and until soldiers responded, they were kept there.

2. After WWI, the United States became the largest military power in the world, remaining so until this day.

1. Thanks to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Allies had a chance to extend their influence into the Middle East. Jordan, Iraq, Palestine, Syria were all declared mandates under the League of Nations. France would take control of Syria, while the other three fell under the British “rule”.

30 Roman Mythology Names for Babies

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Roman mythology is rich with lots of stories that originated from history, religion and perhaps other mythologies predominantly Greek. And as you already know, Roman mythology has a large number of figures, both male and female famous for various things. Baby names inspired by Roman mythology are on the rise and it is not a surprising thing since there are some wonderful names that can be used. Here are 15 male and 15 female names you can consider for your baby.

Male

source: babycentre.co.uk

15. Romulus

According to the legend, Romulus was one of the founders of Rome.

14. Amulius

In Roman mythology, Amulius overthrew his brother Numitor, but Romulus and Remus later deposed him.

13. Pollux

Pollux was the twin brother of Castor and the son of Zeus. Translated to English, it means “sweet”.

12. Janus

He was the Roman God of beginnings and gateways. This God had two faces and in Latin, Janus means “archway”.

11. Vulcan

Vulcan was the God of fire. It is a powerful name.

10. Tatius

In Roman mythology, Tatius was a king of the Sabines.

9. Cupid

Cupid was the Roman God of love. He often appears in drawings and television today as a boy with wings with a bow and arrow. In mythology, he was the son of Venus.

8. Evander

Translated to English, Evander means “good man”. He was the founder of the city of Pallantium.

7. Italus

Italus is not as famous as Remus and Romulus, but he was their father. He gave his name to the region which is today known as Italy.

6. Mars

Mars was the God of war, but it is also the name of the fourth planet in the solar system. It can also be a name of your baby boy.

5. Jupiter

Another Roman god was Jupiter but he was the supreme god in their mythology.

4. Pluto

Pluto was the God of the underworld and an alternate name for Hades. It is a latinized version of the name Ploutos which means “wealth”.

3. Quirinus

He was one of the smaller Roman Gods while his name comes from the Sabine word quiris meaning “a spear”.

2. Saturn

He was the father of Jupiter and Juno, according to the mythology. He was also the God of agriculture

1. Remus

We have Romulus, but the second founder of Rome was just as important.

Img source: alicdn.com

Female

15. Aurora

The Roman Goddess of the morning was called Aurora. It is a beautiful name for a baby girl.

14. Victoria

Victoria is a name of the Roman Goddess of victory, but that name kept re-appearing through history. It is popular today.

13. Vesta

The Roman Goddess of the hearth has her temple in Roma and the name is slightly unusual but gorgeous nonetheless.

12. Silvia

Silvia was the mother of Remus and Romulus and it is the female version of the name Silvius.

11. Lucretia

This is the feminine version of Roman name Lucretius. Also, one Spanish saint was named like this.

10. Maia

Maia was the wife to Vulcan and the Goddess of spring.

9. Lavinia

A wonderful name for a girl, Lavinia was the daughter of King Latinus and the wife of Aeneas.

8. Flora

This name is derived from the Latin word “flos” meaning “flower”. As the name suggests, she was the Goddess of flowers and the wife of Zephyr, the west wind.

7. Diana

Diana was the Goddess of the forest, moon, and childbirth, according to Roman mythology.

6. Felicitas

Goddess Felicitas was the personification of good fortune in Rome. There are some variations to the name today such as Felicia.

5. Juno

Juno was one of the most important Goddesses and she was the Queen of the heavens. She was also the wife of Jupiter.

4. Rhea

Rhea was the wife of Cronus and the mother of Poseidon, Hades, and Zeus.

3. Nona

Nona was the Goddess of pregnancy in ancient Rome and her name means “nine”.

2. Minerva

Minerva translated as “intellect” was the Goddess of wisdom and war.

1. Pax

Slightly unusual, but Pax can be a beautiful name – it means “peace” in Latin.

Roman Shields – History of a Nation

Since the earliest ages of the human civilizations, humans have been waging wars, and one of the basic tools used in fighting from the earlier times of human civilizations were shields. They were made of different materials and they were shaped differently, depending on the nation that used them. This will be the story of Roman ones.

Why are they so important?

It can be said that Romans had shields just like any other nation. However, Roman army would not be such a force and power without its specific shields. The strength of the Roman army actually relied on organization, training and, yes, shields.

Purpose

Roman shields had the dual purpose. Namely, they were there to protect a soldier, and they were also used for pushing back the enemy. The shields were designed in such a way that an entire group of soldiers could protect themselves and actually seal themselves inside those shields. In this way, no spear, arrow or spear could hurt them, if one of the shields is broker, removed or similar, the entire unit is compromised and exposed to enemy It is said that the attack is as strong as its defense. This practically means that both Roman attack and defense relied on those shields. Sometimes, soldiers would simply line up and hold shields straight and up so that soldiers with arrows and spears, as well as catapults, can attack an enemy from their behind. Cavalry would wait protected behind shields and wait for the command to shields to be moved so that the cavalry can launch its attack.

Types

Roman history is a long and rich one. Throughout its millennial history, the Romans have used and developed several types of shields. However, there were three that were the most battle-efficient and used the most.

Img source: wikipedia.com

1 – Scutum

This shield was made as oval or rectangular. These shields were very large and most widely used in Roman campaigns since they were the best protection for warriors, i.e. legionaries and foot soldiers, because they could protect an entire soldier from enemy attacks and those behind the shield as well. They were usually of red background with some decorative ornaments. It is well-known that the Romans used turtle formations in waging wars, well, this shields was ideal and designed for this formation.

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2 – Parma

This type of shields were used mostly used by all those who needed to move fast and needed to perform quick attacks. Some of them were cavalry men who found these shields easy and very convenient. This shields were round and they were not massive.

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3 – Clipeus

This started to be used after 3AD. These shields were vertical and they were most usually made of wood and they were vertical. These shields were used for fights in the arenas but also by soldiers. The shields were covered by leather that was painted.

Battle Shields

During the course of their history, the Romans have realized that mere numbers were not enough to win a battle or conquer a new territory. This was the reason why they have started developing new war tactics. This ultimately led to the development of new war tools, and shields were not an exception. Quite the contrary, they were designed and made on the different types of wars, depending on the terrain and the type of unit that was using them.

Img source: wikipedia.com

Turtle Always Wins

It is widely known that the Roman infantry formations are best known for their Turtle-like formations. These were also called Testudo Formations. They used large and strong shields that protected all the members of the formation. These shields were also used by soldiers for approaching and sieging fortresses. The strength of the unit depended on a soldier who held a shield. As we have said, these formations were great for defense, but they were also great in attack for pushing the enemy backward.

Conclusion

A lot have been told about Romans, their lifestyle and war skills. It just needs to be noted and remembered that shields played a great role in their success to conquer most of the Europe, Africa and Asia at that time. However, it should be remembered that a shield was good as a man who was holding it.

Abraham Lincoln Facts You May Not Know

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The 16th President of the United States of America, Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809. He was a president for 5 years, but on 15 April 1865, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. He showed remarkable leadership skills during the American Civil War. What he is most remembered about is signing the Emancipation Proclamation, which was an executive order changing the legal status of slaves to ‘free’. Hence, we decided to share ten of the most remarkable facts about Lincoln you may not know.

10 Abraham Lincoln Facts You May Not Know

Img source: wikipedia.com

1. Lincoln Served in the Illinois State Legislature

Before his involvement in politics, he had a law career and served 4 consecutive terms in the Illinois state legislature. He was considered to be one of the most trustworthy, reputable and honest lawyers.

2. He Was Self-Educated

Although being a lawyer, Lincoln didn’t have a degree. In fact, he got his education from travelling teachers and his total schooling is estimated to be around one year.

3. ‘President of Firsts’

There have been many things Lincoln did for the first time as a president. He wasn’t only the first president to be assassinated, but also the first US president to wear a beard, hold a patent, and be in an inaugural photograph.

Img source: youtube.com

4. He’s One of The Top 3 Presidents of the United States

Lincoln has constantly been ranked as one of the best presidents the USA had, together with George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

5. The Brother of Lincoln’s Assassin Saved His Son

Before Lincoln being assassinated, John Wilkes Booth’s brother saved Lincoln’s son. John Wilkes Booth’s, Edwin Booth, was a famous actor and he pulled Lincoln’s son to safety as the boy fell on the tracks at a train station.

6. Lincoln’s Bodyguard was Absent When Lincoln Was Assassinated

It is still a mystery where John Parker, Lincoln’s security was when the president was assassinated. Allegedly, Parker went to watch the play at Washington, DC’s Ford’s Theatre. During the intermission, he went to the same saloon where John Wilkes Booth was drinking.

7. Lincoln Had the Bill to Create US Secret Service on His Desk the Night of His Assassination

It is believed that if his bodyguard was there, Lincoln might have stayed alive. It is quite strange that he had such a bill on his desk just the night when he was assassinated.

Img source: history.com

8. Lincoln’s Main Aim Was to Preserve the Union in the Civil War

The main goal of the president was to preserve the Union and thus, he sent troops to recapture lost forts. The war began when the Confederate secessionists fired on Fort Sumter on 12 April 1861.

9. He Was Not an Abolitionist

It is evident that Lincoln hated the institution of slavery. As a matter of fact, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation on 1 January 1863, legally freeing the 3 million slaves. Nevertheless, he claimed that he had no rights to stop the institution of slavery in the States in his first inaugural address.

10. Lincoln Had a Wealthy Wife

Lincoln was married to Mary Todd of Lexington Kentucky. His wife came from a wealthy family who owned slaves. They married on 4 November 1842. Mary’s two brothers had died serving in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. Mary Ann Todd Lincoln witnessed her husband’s assassination, which resulted in her being institutionalized for psychiatric disease ten years after the incident.

Best Roman Emperors – Top 10

Roman history is full of emperors that have left some kind of mark in its history. From the ones who ate their children to the ones who burnt Rome and made grandiose buildings. This article will try to list ten Roman emperors that have left a significant mark on Rome’s history and development.

Img source: medium.com

Septimus Severus

This Roman emperor ruled from 145 to 211 AD and he was the first Roman emperor that came from Africa (it was not a continent then, but a province of Libya). There are two things this emperor is known for. The first one is the construction of a magnificent Triumphal arch that stands even today. The arch was constructed due to the second thing, and that is the conquest of Parthia and thus establishing Rome as the greatest power in the region.

Img source: finds.org.uk

Aurelian

It is now known a lot about this emperor, who ruled 214-275AD), but he has made one of the things that Rome is famous for even today – Aurelian Wall. This wall goes around Rome even today.

Img source: deseretnews.com

Vespasian

Rome was in chaos during the first half of the 1st century AD. And, then, this emperor came to power (9-79AD). The main task for him was to restore order and power of Rome, which he did. He did this by making numerous taxes that people had to pay, and he used this money to rebuilt and empower Rome. However, this emperor is most famous for the construction of The Colosseum – the biggest tourist attraction in Rome even today.

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Constantine

Constantine, ruled 280-337AD, is one of the most important person not only in Roman but in Christian history. Why? Well, he is the man who made Christianity a state religion and it became the predominant creed in Europe since then. He also strengthened the Empire and made administrative correction due to which the East Roman Empire will remain to exist until 1500s.

Img source: staticflickr.com

Trajan

Ruled 52-117Ad, and born in present day Spain, Trajan is one of the most famous and honored emperors since he kept people, military and the state satisfied and safe. He is the one who obtained Dacia (present-day Romania), Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) and Parthia (present-day Iran) for the Empire. Today, there is Trajan’s Column in Rome and it contains the urn with remains of this emperor.

Img source: pinterest.com

Hadrian

The most famous thing that this emperor (ruled 76-138AD) did was the construction of the wall between present-day England and Scotland known as Hadrian’s Wall. However, he built a lot of buildings and temples all over the Roman Empire.

Img source: biography.com

Octavian

Along with Constantine and Trajan, he is one of the best known Roman emperors. He ruled 63BC to 14AD. He is actually the one who ended republican days of Rome and transformed it into the Empire. He is the founder of the longest dynasty in Roman empire and he can be thanked for PAX ROMANA.

Img source: biography.com

Nerva

This emperor was not so widely known in history, but it left his mark for sure. He reigned 30-98AD and he ascended the throne when the Empire was in lot of problems. He was the one who brought order and peace. He was well-respected among lower layers because he lowered taxes. He is also to be thanked for the adoption of Emperor Trajan who was one of the greatest emperors in Rome of all times.

Img source: wikimedia.org

Antonino Pio

Ruling 86-161AD, he is one of the oldest people to be pointed as an emperor at his 51. He deserves the place in this list because his reign was one of the peaceful and war-free in the entire Roman history.

Img source: thinkinglogical.com

Marcus Aurelius

In the Roman history, there are 5 Good Emperors, and he is one of them. It needs to be pointed out that this emperor fought Germanic tribes almost all of his life and he spent almost all of his life at the north border of the Empire.

 

Conclusion

Best Roman emperors have actually made Roman history because they were great builders, reformatory rulers and conquerors. However, it needs to be pointed out that these ten gave Rome something unique either in terms of reforms or conquests.

Henry VIII Wives – Who were the Women he married?

Henry VIII’s wives, one of the most interesting periods of English history. He is one of most well known monarchs of England, charismatic and extravagant. He ruled for almost 39 years, and introduced radical changes to the English constitution and expansion of royal power. He is perhaps best known for the at the time controversial breaking with the Catholic Church through the English Reformation.

Out of his duties as a king, he is truly best known for being married six times. His first marriage to Catherine of Aragon lasted 25 years, with the next five lasting less than that combined. Two of his marriages were annulled, first parting him from the Catholic Church. Two of his wives were beheaded, and another died after having his only son. His final wife outlived the famous English king.

Let us now see who were the six wives of king Henry VIII.

Img source: pinterest.com

1. Catherine of Aragon

Although she was much in life, Catherine is famous today for her role in the Reformation. She is the daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Catherine was a political tool, as she was first the wife of Henry’s brother, Arthur. Unfortunately, he passed away only five months after the wedding.

Arthur’s father and the king of England, Henry VII, had to decide what to do in the difficult situation, while Catherine was practically a prisoner. Six years after Arthur passed away, she became the ambassador of the Aragonese Crown to England in 1507. This made her the first female European ambassador in history. She married Henry VIII two years later.

Their long marriage was eventful for Catherine. She suffered multiple miscarriages and stillbirths. Their first son died 52 days after birth. Their daughter Mary later become a queen. In 1513, Catherine was the regent Queen for six months, because Henry was away in France. During this period, she gave birth to a stillborn child and oversaw a victory against Scotland at the Battle of Flodden.

Henry started to notice Anne Boleyn, Catherine’s lady-in-waiting, around 1526.This seemingly miniscule event started a chain reaction, which would end Catherine and Henry’s marriage and lead to the Protestantization of England. Henry wanted to annul his marriage and marry Anne. The pope refused of course, so the king turned his back on Catholic Church and took supremacy over religion.

He divorced Catherine in 1533 and banished her from the court. She died at Kimbolton Castle in Cambridge shire in 1536.

Img source: wikipedia.com

2. Anne Boleyn

The controversial and extraordinary events of her life were unparalleled in British history. Queen Anne is the most famous of the wives of Henry VIII, and is the subject of talk and fascination even today.

Henry endured a seven-year courtship and various political and religious upheavals due to his decision to marry her. However, the controversial monarch had her investigated for high treason not even three full years later.
This was probably due to Anne being unable to bear him a son. She gave birth to Elizabeth I in September of 1533, after which she suffered several miscarriages. Henry again began to look elsewhere for a woman who would give him an heir. Jane Seymour was the one he thought.

He began courting her, and a month later ordered an investigation for high treason, sending Anne to the Tower of London. She was tried on adultery, incest and plotting to kill the king, found guilty, probably wrongly, and was beheaded four days later. Learn more about Anne at Factinate.

Img source: pinterest.com

3. Jane Seymour

Jane is believed to have been Henry’s favorite wife, probably because she gave him a son who lived. She was also a lady-in-waiting to the queen. Interestingly, she shared a great-grandmother with Anne, as well as with Henry’s future wife Catherine Howard.

Jane Seymour was not nearly as highly educated her predecessors, but was peaceful and gentle, which helped with peacemaking efforts at court. She married the Tudor king in May of 1533,only days after Anne had been beheaded. Their son arrived in October of next year. This boy went on to become King Edward VI, but his mother would not live to see it, as she sadly passed away two weeks after giving birth. He was the only one to receive a queen’s funeral. Henry also chose to be buried with her when he passed in January of 1547.

Img source: wikipedia.com

4. Anne of Cleves

The last three wives of Henry VIII are far less famous than his first three. They also share names with two of the previous. The next three wives were also far less dramatic and controversial, and have not resulted in any children.

Henry’s marriage with Anne of Cleves also went unconsummated. They married in January of 1540, but the plans for it began shortly after Jane died. Anne is the daughter of Duke of Cleves and Count of Mark. She was mostly a political tool, and Henry was not really enamored with her. He annulled the marriage after six months, stating the reasons to be the lack of consummation and the fact she was already engaged once.
Henry also blamed her appearance as the reason for the former. They did however become close friends after. She accepted the annulment and became an honorary member of the family, known as “the King’s Beloved Sister”. Thomas Cromwell, the advisor who suggested this marriage, was executed on 28 July 1540, on the same day Henry married his next wife.

Img source: nerdalicious.com.au

5. Catherine Howard

Henry’s next marriage was more controversial than the fourth. His new teenage bride was a first cousin of Anne Boleyn. Her life was turbulent even before this. Her music teacher molested her since she was 13. Later, she had an affair with the secretary of her father’s stepmother. After she found out, she was sent to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves. Her uncle, Duke of Norfolk, set it up as he saw Henry’s disinterest in Anne.
Henry was attracted to her. The following spring, Catherine allegedly began an affair with Henry’s favorite courtier, Thomas Culpeper. Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, found out about it, as well as the relationship with the secretary.

Cranmer launched an investigation into the alleged affairs, and within months, Catherine met the same faith as her cousin Anne, beheaded for high treason.

Img source: wikipedia.com

6. Catherine Parr

The monarch’s sixth and final wife is also the third one named Catherine. She was the luckiest. Catherine married Henry in July 1543, four months after Catherine Howard’s beheading, and managed to outlive him by a year. She was already married once before Henry, and again after him. This made her the most married English queen. A more impressive feat is that she was the first queen of both England and Ireland.

Catherine was in a romantic relationship with Jane Seymour’s brother Thomas Seymour when they tried to turn Henry against Catherine. Catherine outwitted them, however, and reconciled with her husband. Six months after Henry VIII passed away, Catherine married Thomas Seymour. Next August, she gave birth to her only child and died several days later.

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