History

Inventions That Turned the Course of History

Every age in the history of mankind has had its inventors, whose ingenuities have changed the world in which we live today. In this article, we will introduce you to inventions that have drastically changed the world. These are inventions without which life would be unthinkable today.

The Great Inventions Of Mankind

Source:relaxado.com

From the creation of the universe to the present day, strange and complex changes have developed in the human mind. Our species grew and survived despite the collisions in the universe, eruptions of volcanoes and many other changes that mankind has witnessed. And – we have survived to this day when, thanks to the development of thoughts and technical advances, we can at least take a peek into this vast world.

On one side we have humans – on the other is an endless space of the universe that is pressing and luring us with new and undiscovered secrets. What does this mysterious space look like? The future will tell us, but we will remind you of some significant inventions of mankind that have changed the course of our lives forever.

Wheel – The Peer Of Civilization

Source:ancient-origins.net

Wheel development has been slow but steady. Its precursor was a primitive wooden cylinder that made it easier to move when rolled under heavy loads. We can find the earliest proof of the existence of a wheel on the remains of Central Asian cultures (Ur, 2700 BC). Around 1700 BC, the application of the wheel extended to China and Egypt. The first wheels with spokes were reported on the battles of the ancient Romans, around 300 BC. Before its advent in Europe, the Pacific islands were unaware of its existence, and in pre-Columbian America, the wheel principle was known, but they had not developed its application.

Writing Supplies / From Stone To Graphite

Paper

Source:amazon.ca

Tsai Lun was a Chinese inventor, eunuch and prominent figure in the emperor’s court. He is credited with discovering the paper and the process of producing that thin material. According to historical sources, Tsai Lun broke the bark of mulberry wood into fibers and made sheets of paper from them. However, archaeological research indicates that the paper began to be applied about 250 years before Tsai Lun. In the Fangmatan archaeological site in southwestern China’s province of Gansu – a fragment of a 2nd century BC map was found, representing the oldest known piece of paper in the world. Unfortunately, the production formula was not saved. The early pens were stiff. In ancient Mesopotamia, the stylus was used for writing on soft clay tablets. They were partly trapezoid in shape and made of reeds.

Pencil

Source:youtube

The Romans wrote on wax tablets and could erase what they wrote. Ancient Egyptians used chopped reed pens. Over time, people switched to using the feathers of large birds. They were mostly written on materials such as parchment and papyrus. It is only since the 17th century that pens have become more flexible. Finally, the discovery of graffiti triggered pencil writing. The Italian married couple Bernacotti sketched the first pen of this kind in the 16th century. In the early 19th century, sewn pencils with a handle and a special metal part appeared in England.

Plane / Realization Of Ancient Dream

Source:pinterest

Ancient Greek scientist Archytas built a bird-shaped aircraft in the 4th century BC that reportedly flew 200 m! And in his piece “Codex on the flight of birds,” Leonardo da Vinci portrayed and designed the aircraft. In ancient times, humans tried to imitate bird flight by placing artificial wings on a machine. English inventor and engineer George Cayley built a glider in 1853 that was able to carry passengers and laid the foundations for the creation of the aircraft. It was a fixed-wing aircraft, with a propulsion system and control surface.

The first glider flight was made by Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris, a few years later. And at the end of the 19th century, there were more short-term flights and more and more enthusiasts who wanted to be the inventors of what later became the airplane. Some of them paid that price with their own life. Finally, the brothers from Ohio, Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first internationally recognized controlled and steady flight on December 17, 1903.

The Discovery of Electricity – War Of The Currents

Source:allabtinstru.blogspot.com

Serbian scientist Nikola Tesla was a scientist whose brilliance enabled today’s modern life. We couldn’t imagine life today without power supply or mass communication systems. His enemy and former boss, Thomas Edison, was also a famous American inventor. These two divided scientists waged the so-called “War of the currents”  because of electrical systems that were meant to supply the world with electricity. Tesla advocated an AC system and Edison one-way. Tesla’s ideas often represented inventions for which there was no space on the market in those times.

He has also worked for years on a system of wireless transmitting of voice, images or moving pictures. That laid the foundation for many of the later inventions we use today (the radio, TV, mobile phones). Still, Tesla was not a good businessman, which could not be said for Edison.

Edison’s Legacy – Inventions And Good Business

Source:zmescience.com

Edison’s enduring legacy lies not in just one patent or technology – but in factories of innovation – claimed some historians and scientists. Specifically, Edison timely assessed the importance of patenting the invention. Therefore, every invention that came from his company was patented and well protected. The importance of patenting is still of great importance today, claim the companies involved in this business. Today, companies like Invent help are here to provide inventors with real support in patenting and subsequently branding their inventions. If you are the inventor and want to know how to protect your patent – click here.

Given that every new invention has to pass rigorous controls and require extensive research – the existence of such companies today greatly facilitates the situation for some new scientists who are facing the problem of market breakthroughs.

Car / World On The Wheels

Source:mercedes-benz-publicarchive.com

A car usually means a motor vehicle on wheels that is used to transport people and goods. The year of birth of the modern car is 1886 when the German inventor Karl Benz patented his patent Patent-Motorwagen. Cars have entered mass use in the 20th century and today we cannot imagine life without them. As time went on, cars became more and more complex: they were getting more modern equipment and increasingly complex control functions, which made them not only more comfortable but also safer, and the controls were easier to operate.

Computer / Instead Of The Human Brain

Source:thoughtco.com

A computer is a complex device used to perform mathematical operations or control operations that can be expressed in numerical or logical form. They are made up of components that perform simpler, more clearly defined functions. The complex interaction of these components results in the ability of a computer to process information. The computers we know today originated in the mid-20th century, though the roots of computing are much older.

Modern Computers

Source:wallpaperup.com

The capabilities of modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions or billions of times greater than early machines and take up little space to accommodate them. Simple computers are small enough to accommodate mobile devices with small batteries that can power them. Personal computers in various forms are what most people consider “computers”. However, integrated computers are present in many devices, ranging from MP3 players to fighter jets, from toys to industrial robots.

Internet

Source:activistpost.com

A network of computers that cover the entire planet, allows people to access all information, anywhere in the world. It would be unnecessary to write what the internet allows, it may not matter as the wheel, but it is certainly one of the greatest inventions ever. The first idea about the Internet was presented by Nikola Tesla, who envisaged the use of the Internet and its benefits.

15 Lesser Known Facts about History of Education in London

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Education in England has changed and developed a lot since the beginning. Right now, we are looking at one of the most promising educational hubs and the home of prestigious academic institutions like University College London and Imperial College London. However, the development of education has happened gradually throughout the years. In this article, you’ll learn about the history of education in London and the UK and the 15 lesser-known facts that brought the country where it is now.

1. 1870: The SLB Was the Only School Board

Back in 1870, the Elementary Education Act created the only school board in London. This board covered the jurisdiction area of the Metropolitan Board of Works. Right now, this area is known as inner London. The goal of the Board was to provide educational opportunities and places for poor children in the city. Soon after, it became the biggest provider of primary education in London.

2. 1871: School Attendance Became Mandatory

A year later, the school became mandatory for children aged five through thirteen. However, this wasn’t truly forced until almost a decade later, and it still was paid.

3. 1880: Attendance Was Made Compulsory

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Attendance became compulsory nine years later. The following year, education became free for students aged five through thirteen.

4. 1889: The LCC Replaced the Metropolitan Board of Works

In 1889, the London County Council, also known as the LCC, replaced the previous local government body in the area of inner London.

5. 1893: The TEB Was Established

In 1893, the new local government body established the Technical Education Board. The aim of this board was to help the provision of secondary and technical education in London. This is when the junior county scholarships were first introduced, allowing students to go to technical and secondary schools after they finish elementary education.

6. 1897: Conflict between the SLB and TEB

Img source: teachertoolkit.co.uk

The history of education in London continued with one significant change. In 1897, TEB allocated the grants of the Science and Art Department. It also fought with SLB over the higher-grade institutions.

7. 1901: The Board Couldn’t Fund Schools

As a result of the previous fact, the UK ruled out that funding the schools that are outside of the elementary remit is illegal. Soon after this, the history of education in England led to the SLB abolition.

8. 1904: The Education London Act

The Education London Act of 1903 made a huge change in the history of education in the UK. A year after it was signed, the LCC took over the responsibility for the educational provision from TEB and the SLB. It brought all elementary schools under a single administrative structure, carried out renovations and building that improved the school conditions, and introduced various welfare reforms. These reforms included medical centers, open-air schools, and free meals for the pupils.

9. 1918: Education Act

Img source: sjmc.gov.au

The LCC had to limit the educational developments during World War I. However, they still opened some central schools and raised the school leaving age to 14. It was later in 1934 that a law was passed to raise this number to 15. If you want to learn more about these grande changes, according to https://au.edubirdie.com/ you can read some of their history paper samples.

10. the 1920s: Focus on the Unemployment

Because of the bad economic conditions after the war, the LCC organized recreational and instructional centers for the unemployed young people aged sixteen to eighteen.

11. World War I: Most Schools Were Destroyed

During the war, almost half of the London school population had been evacuated. By its end, 290 schools in the area were damaged or fully destroyed.

12. 1944 Education Act

Img source: pexels.com

The Education Act of 1944 made education compulsory for students up to the age of 14, which created an official division between primary and secondary education.

13. 1960: Creation of the GLC

The end of the LCC came in 1960 when the Herbert Commission created a new body named the Greater London Council and made them responsible for the area called Greater London.

14. 1965: The ILEA Special Committee Creation

In 1965, the GLC created a special committee called the Inner London Education Authority. This committee followed the work of LCC and was responsible for the development of the educational system.

15. 1983: The GLC Was Abolished

In 1983, it was announced that the GLC will be abolished. However, since the boroughs in inner London could not handle the education provisions, it remained the elected body in the area.  It wasn’t until 1990 that ILEA was abolished and the provision for the education was handed to the local boroughs.

Final Thoughts

Right now, 94% of the London schools are judged to be outstanding or good. They leverage the power of technology, which gives them the highest percentage of outstanding educational systems in all of England’s regions.

Chernobyl’s Real Story: How Much of it is Real of Chernobyl?

Chernobyl is becoming a worldwide hit to viewers of HBO as well as Sky because it told the story of a 1986 nuclear catastrophe. And how much of the Chernobyl TV series is a reality, with fiction. Chernobyl is now one of the most discussed TV series of the year fans were interested in knowing how precise it will be to the actual events and in which bits are made up to the television. Its co-production of HBO as well as Sky is predicated on a nuclear plant explosion of Ukraine back of 1986 and told the story for events that transpired before and during. Here’s what parts for Chernobyl are factual and which can be adapted to television.

Source:HBO.com

What Occurred at Chernobyl?

A nuclear disaster in Chernobyl took place at 1.23am on the 26 April 1986.

Its plant was in the middle of a shutdown whenever a power surge occurred, caused by inserting control rods into the reactor. The mixture of an overly hot fuel with those of the cooling water led to increased pressure as well as steam production that spread via the whole core as well as caused the explosion. It was followed by a second blast probably caused by an explosion for hydrogen from zirconium water explosions.

The radioactive smoke as well as debris dust cloud rose throughout the air for around a kilometer and quickly spread throughout Europe. It has been estimated that such radiation is equivalent to 500 atomic bombs with the same stage which fell on Hiroshima.

During a routine operation involving firemen, its city of Pripyat evacuations and also the dump of 5,000 tons of materials such as lead, boron carbide, sand and clay, a reactor is eventually buried in a concrete and steel sarcophagus to the lock-in radiation. Thirty-one people died directly from either the disaster, as per Soviet officials; however, the death toll is heavily debated.

How Much Real it is?

Source:nowtv.com

Chernobyl season 1 episode 1 brings curiosity among the viewers. You can watch it here. Its Chernobyl miniseries of the HBO that recently tied up its five-episode run received widespread acclaim as well as praise from critics or even viewers. This is another beak in HBO’s cap and thereby proves the channel’s claim which that’s not TV, that’s HBO because of its TV shows. Throughout the wake of pervasive cancellations during the Game of Thrones final episode, HBO has instantly proved that this is still gonna put out quality content. From manufacturing to writing to acting, it’s undoubtedly a great watch.

The Show has a Dramatic Permit

As in any historical movie depiction, writers, as well as creators, should make any changes for the sake of controversy, and Chernobyl is no different. Indeed, it was much more necessary to Chernobyl to one major reason: the series is based on even a complicated science accident whose specifics will easily be more than a layman’s knowledge of how nuclear power plants as well as nuclear fusion function.

Had Craig Mazin, its creator of the show, stuck with the same story, of most people, the series would have been dried, complex, and boring. Fortunately, the show isn’t and its dramatic permit is used with good taste or respect. Mazin, as well as the other production companies, have done amazing research as they are expected to make the miniseries and that it shows, and of course everything is not 100 percent accurate.

How Accurate has been the Employee Portrayal?

Among the most dramatic moments throughout the miniseries shows 3 power plant employees volunteering to enter an underground tunnel there under a broken reactor to open the essential drainage valve.

There had been fears which lava from either the molten reactor may achieve the water, triggering another, possibly much more large explosion.

Contrary to reports that perhaps the 3 divers died from radiation sickness as a result of the action, all 3 survived.

Change leader Borys Baranov passed away in 2005 when Valery Bespalov as well as Oleksiy Ananenko, all chief engineers at one of the reactor parts were still alive or live throughout the capital, Kiev.

This was the job, tells Oleksiy Ananenko, who has been on the change at the time, while the manager had requested others as well in. They knew in which the valves are, however for the task they are the right kind of people.

Source:hindustantimes.com

“If I won’t, they can just fire me. How do I find a new job after that?” he notes to a few errors throughout the TV depiction.

The faces were partly covered by ventilators so that they could talk with each other, they have not been paid a fine, and that they were not cheered on their successful exchange.

“That was just our job. Who could applaud which?”

Miners have been brought into it to dig a tunnel underneath the reactor to create a place for just a heat exchanger, prevent the molten core from evaporating through the concrete pad and contaminate the groundwater, intimidating lives of millions of people.

The temps under the reactor are high as well as the series showed them trying to strip naked.

“They took apart their garments, and not like it was also in the film, not back to anything,” admits Mr. Breus; also trying to point out is that their role was eventually not significant to a story.

Miners completed their work earlier than expected, but by that time the molten core would have cooled itself. “Miners are tough guys who were not afraid of something, and not power station employees.”

Wider Implications of this Show

A Globe Nuclear Association spokesman said that the organization is seeing a large increase in sales in its website over its Chernobyl information papers due to the film’s success.

If asked whether it would result in much more anti-nuclear sensation, they taught Power Technology: “Its accident in Chernobyl is serious and had lengthy-term psychological & socio-economic effects for the people who are affected”. Though serious, nuclear accidents were very rare, or even trying to account for such nuclear power has triggered higher death rates than every other form of energy century. Fewer than 100 people were thought to have died from radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident to deadline, according to the UN Scientific Council on an Impacts of Atom Radiation. It is a tiny fraction of death that occurs each year by other main energy outlets. Lyman concluded: “The series has demonstrated to be immensely popular, may have attracted a lot of attention, and it has energized renewed debate of nuclear security across the world”. That’s all for the good. And as with the actual accident, I will expect this won’t change the brains for most individuals. Perhaps the biggest popularity of the show apart from stimulating discussion about nuclear energy is boosting the region’s tourism. Reuters reported a 40 percent growth in the tourism industry to Pripyat’s thriving city as well as the reactor.

Unseen Hitler’s Photographs Kept in The United States Archives

A series of photographs of Adolph Hitler made by Heinrich Hoffmann played a crucial role in increasing his popularity in the 1920s, during his rise to power in Germany.

Heinrich Hoffmann met Hitler in 1919. He became infatuated with Nazi ideology and joined the party in 1920. The next year he was named Hitler’s official photographer, a position he held for the next 25 years.

Img source: telegraf.rs

Hoffmann took pictures of Hitler on various occasions and some 1,270 have only recently been published. These digitalized images are only a small fraction of a much larger collection, containing some 41,000 photographs kept in the US National Archives.

Hitler loved posing with his dog, a German Shepheard he received a gift in 1921. Hoffmann tried to show Hitler’s love for dogs on his photographs, enchanting the Nazi Party leader’s image in public.

Img source: telegraf.rs

There is also a photograph of the party’s senior leadership, including Joseph Goebbels, who would later become Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. Also, present on the photo is Rudolph Hess, Hitler’s deputy who defected to Scotland in 1941 in an effort to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom. He was arrested and sentenced to life in prison.

Img source: telegraf.rs

A large number of Hoffmann’s photographs were seized by the United States Army after the war. Hoffmann himself was arrested and sentenced to four years in prison for war profiteering. His wealth was immense due to the looting of occupied territories during the German occupation. Hoffman had a fall out with Hitler in 1944 after a row he had with Martin Bormann, Hitler’s second-in-command.

 

Paula Hitler – What She Said About Her Brother Adolf Hitler

On June 1st, 1960, elderly Paula Wolf passed away in her two-room apartment in a little German town of Berchtesgaden. Frau Wolf worked as a secretary for the most of her life, and there was nothing remarkable about her, except the fact that she was surrounded by former Nazi and SS members, who took care of her for the last eight years of her life. For Frau Wolf was actually Paula Hitler, the last living immediate relative of Adolf Hitler.

Alois Hitler Sr. married Klara Pölzl, his third and final wife, on January 7th, 1885. Faithfull to his character, after a modest lunch for a few guests, Alois went to work for the rest of the day, leaving Klara to take care of his two children from his second marriage, Alois Jr., and Angela. Soon, Clara added three of her own children to the bunch, Adolf (born 1889), Edmund (born 1893), and Paula (born 1896). Edmund died of measles in 1900, when he was just seven.

When Paula was six, Alois Hitler Sr. died while having his usual morning glass of wine in his favorite tavern. Five years later, she lost her mother as well. Since Alois Sr. spend his entire career working in the customs office, Austrian government awarded small pensions to both Adolf and Paula. Later, Adolf renounced his pension, signing it over to Paula.

Source:hitlerschildren.com

Paula Hitler’s first job after the war was as a housekeeper at a dormitory for Jewish university students in Vienna. She changed careers later and became a secretary. She saw her brother only once during the 1920s and described the meeting as if he had “fallen from heaven.” He was quickly gaining notoriety and his reputation did have a negative effect on Paula’s life. She lost her job at a Viennese insurance company in 1930, when her bosses, despite her using the Alois Sr.’s original surname Hiedler, discovered she was Adolf’s sister. Since then she was receiving financial aid from her brother until his death and the collapse of the Third Reich in 1945. Although he was helping both of his sisters after his climb to power, Adolf didn’t think much of either Angela or Paula, calling them stupid geese. He even declined Paula’s request to marry Dr. Erwin Jekelius, an Austrian doctor. Instead, he had him arrested and sent to the East front, where he was captured. Dr. Jekelius died in Soviet prisoners of war camp in 1947.

Source:thegloor.com

After the war, Paula Hitler was arrested by the Allies and interrogated by the United States military intelligence. One of the notes from the interrogation states that agents thought she looked a lot like her older brother. She couldn’t believe that her beloved Adi was responsible for Holocaust and said that she only got to meet Eva Braun once.

When she was released, Paula returned to Vienna, living from her savings. But in 1952, she transferred to a modest apartment in Berchtesgaden, where several former Nazi and SS members flocked to her. In all her interviews she never talked about politics, thus avoiding to criticize her brother.

Source: ww2gravestone.com

Winston Churchill Quotes Are Among the Most Famous in the World

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One of the best and most iconic leaders in human history, Winston Churchill is an epitome of what dedication and perseverance, as well as a healthy and necessary dose of stubbornness, can help you achieve in life. He was never the one to be dismayed nor discouraged by failure, despite of numerous disappointments both in his personal and professional life. Churchill bravely overcame all of them and became the leader of the United Kingdom in its darkest days during the German blitzkrieg through Western Europe in 1940. For him, this was just another obstacle to be tackled with courage and persistence, and in turn overcome with the utmost dedication and hard work, which served as a motivation for the people not only in Britain at those dark WWII years, but throughout the rest of the world.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was born in his family’s ancestral home, Blenheim Place, located in Oxfordshire, England, on November 30, 1874. His family was wealthy and of the aristocratic class. Growing up, young Winston attended Harrow School and then the Royal Military College in Sandhurst. During his long life of 90 years, he was a politician, army officer, and writer.

His most important career role was as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between 1940 and 1945. He served another term, from 1951 to 1955. Churchill lead the Conservative Party from 1940 until 1955, but was also a part of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924. Regarding his ideologies, he was an economic liberal and an imperialist.

Img source: independent.co.uk

When it comes to success outside of politics, Churchill won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953, “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.” He was also nominated in 1946, 1948, 1949, and 1950.

From 1908 until his death, he was married to Clementine Hozier, with whom he had five children, Diana, Randolph, Sarah, Marigold, and Mary. Winston Churchill passed away in Kensington, London, on January 24, 1965.

What is he the most famous for today, other than his great political success and an iconic hat, suit and stick look, complemented with a large cigar? Some believe that due to his life mishaps and challenges, Winston Churchill developed quite a unique sense of humor, which when paired with his quick wits, delivered some of the most memorable quotes in history. Many of his quotes are famous around the world, and of course, still, hold value today. It could also be said they are some of the words to live to buy, and whoever chooses to follow his advice will surely have a prosperous life. Following is a list of his most popular quotes.

1. I like things to happen, and if they do not happen, I like to make them happen.

2. You must put your head into the lion’s mouth if the performance is to be a success.

3. I have in my life concentrated more on self-expression than self-denial.

4. You never can tell whether bad luck may not, after all, turn out to be good luck.

5. The true guide of life is to do what is right.

6. You must look at facts because they look at you.

7. It is better to be making the news than taking it; to be an actor rather than a critic.

8. The empires of the future are the empires of the mind.

9. To be really happy and really safe, one ought to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must all be real.

10. Nourish your hopes, but do not overlook realities.

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Silk Route Tours and the Ancient Network of trade routes

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The Silk Route Tours were not only a lucrative adventure for the Han Dynasty but was also a trade network that traded valuable goods from China, through the Middle East to the West.

The Silk Road and its Silk route expedition began from China

The trade network was officially opened by Zhang Qian and gradually formed during the reign of the Han Dynasty (206 BC until 220 AD) in 130 BC and functioned until 1453 AD when the Ottoman Empire boycotted the trade from China with the West and closed the road.

There is evidence that the Silk Road existed and was traded long before the Han Dynasty to open it officially. In the beginning, was traded silk from China to Western countries, and later trading continued with all trade exchanges. It is known that the roads between China and Greece opened somewhere between the first and second centuries B.C. China in ancient Greek is “Seres” which means “the land of silk”.

source: reddit.com

But the name of the Silk Road is not out of the Greek name of China but is first mentioned in 1877 by the German geographer and historian Ferdinand von Richthofen when he wanted to describe the path of trading.

Because the Silk Road has been branched on several routes across Asia and Europe, but also in Africa, historians call it “The Silk Route”.

The Trade goods on ancient Silk Road

In ancient times, China was known for silk fabrics, and the trade in the Western countries began, but later it applied to a real trade of goods. Methadran and Central Asia traded with wool, carpets, blankets and rugs, gold, silver, semi-precious stones and glassware that China imported. From crops, China imported onions, carrots, crabs, melons, peaches, vines, olives and others. China exported porcelain plates, porcelain vases, bronze objects, medicines, perfumes.

European countries imported rice, cotton, woolen and silk fabrics, various spices, jewelry, and exported leather, fur, honey.

There were traded domestic and wild animals, but also slaves.

source: festival.si.edu

The significance of the Silk Road was undoubted of great importance at that time for all the countries in which the road was passing, because apart from goods there was an exchange of traditions, cultures, and religion.

The Silk Route Tours took back then

The Silk Road consists of several routes that go in different directions, three of which are the main ones. Because of these branched roads, historians call it “The Silk Route” this time.
There are several roads, but three are the main ones, of which:

The Northern Route, which originated from today’s city of Xi’an, which at the time was the capital of the Han Dynasty. It stretched north-west through the province of Gansu through Shaanxi, and from here it is divided into three directions.

The Southern route or Karakoram route is a route that mostly goes along from China through the Karakoram mountains to the seas. Roads are branched, but everyone leads to the seacoast where traffickers continue their journey to Western countries.

source: amazingplaces.com

Nowadays this route is like Karakoram Highway, an asphalt road linking China with Pakistan.

The Southern route on the China side starts from Sichuan’s provincial capital of Chengdu. The main road passes through Yunnan, Myanmar and into South Asia. When the road passes from Sichuan into Yunnan here, it is divided into two main branches. One branch expanded over Chengdu southwest across the Sichuan Basin plain to the foothills of Mingshan mountains. From here, the route continues to the Qingyi to Ya’an where it connects to the famous and most traded route “Tea and Horse Trade”.

The Southern route is still known as “India Route” or “Old Sichuan-Yunnan-Myanmar-India Trade”.

The Silk Route Today

How vital the Silk Road was in ancient times, we can notice from the items I previously mentioned as historically proven facts.

It is undoubtedly one of the most important trade routes that represented a bridge between the east from the west, routes through which in addition to being traded, but also learned many new things about the culture and traditions of these seemingly two different worlds.

source: seneca-eu.net

Today Silk Road and the silk route tours still have a significant impact on culture and tradition, but also on tourism in general. The road is recognized as the ‘greatest route in the history of mankind’, which creates excellent opportunities for developing tourism and getting to know the cultural heritage that still exists in those regions just like in the past.

Thousands of tourists travel the Silk Road to experience at least some of what was in the past when the great merchants went along those routes.

Specify the date for your next vacation, select the Silk Road the best package for you and do not wait for a day longer. Pack up and go on one of the best trips in your life.

The Silk Road Tours and tourists

Travel agencies offer many different packages for routes along the silk route. Each route is unique in its way.

First, you need to decide which travel agency will get your trust. Do not rush to make the decision to which agency you trust. Explore their website, consider which packages are offered, and always pay attention to the way you are paying the agency.

Some of the Silk Route Tours offered by tourist agencies last for five days, but there are also tours along the silk route that continue for 15 days. If that is still not enough for you, some packages last 90 or 120 days.

Choose one of the tour packages that travel agencies are offering and go on the road where the famous Marco Polo was traveling.

source: mychinaholidays.com

No matter which package you choose, you will not regret it. Each round, each city, each region is different and unique in its way.

One thing is certain: with this journey, you will be richer for another fantastic experience that will remain for your whole life.

This is a journey I recommend to every adventurer, but also for those who want the beaches to replace them with something new and interesting.

It’s not just a trip. If you have one of these long Silk Route Tours, you will have a different view of the life and surroundings around you, long after you have experienced it.

When was Cardboard Invented?

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The word ‘cardboard boxes’ will not tickle your senses I guess, but when it comes to its utility and usage, then no one can deny for sure. This is simple yet a great stiff thing that is so much facilitating. It’s not just the utility of these cardboard boxes that makes them so special; instead, there is much more to discover about these wonder boxes. Now, cardboard is used for the preparation of customized product packaging too.

The moment when first-time cardboard boxes introduced

It was many moons ago when in 1817 a brilliant head named Sir Malcolm Thornhill got this bright idea of producing boxes, at that time cardboard boxes made of single sheets. These single sheets of cardboard earned a good name. Around the 1840’s, the transportation of moths and eggs were started by silk manufacturers, and in these cardboard boxes, Japan transported these two items to Europe. The moment when cardboard boxes came into the limelight was in the 1850’s. The usage of cardboard boxes achieved a milestone when a popular company named Kellog began to use cardboard as the packaging for their cereals.

source: twitter.com

Ridged paper of cardboard

The ridged cardboard that has corrugated sheet came in the year of 1856. Two Englishmen came up with this and the basic idea at that time was to use it as a hat lining.

Cardboard sheet for wrapping the bottles + glass lanterns

Yes, cardboard sheets have also been used for covering glass lanterns and bottles. In the year of 1871, Albert L. Jones from New York patented a single-sided ridged board and started using in the packaging industry.

How cardboard met further prosperities?

The manufacturer of paper bag called Robert by chance conceived and developed the box that was a precut box. This took when he was busy with a metal ruler and paper-printing. As you can see the development of boxes went in a peculiar way.

source: heartlandpkg.com

These two kinds were used for rumpling and wrinkling the bags, and this was the time when he suddenly switched on cutting bags. That was the spur of the moment when he realized that he could also opt for the production of precut paperboard cartons that come with open arms. It was a whole new idea, a great innovative idea that he introduced to the rest of the world. People received and embraced this idea and invention whole-heartedly. After this mega invention, it was the wooden crates that started prevailing all over. These firm wooden boxes somewhat replaced cardboard boxes.

Use of cardboard went beyond imagination

It is interesting what happened to cardboards, and no one could think even in his wildest dreams that an architect named Peter Melbourne from the US would use cardboard boxes to construct a house. Now you would think it is a vain boast, but no it’s not, he walked the talk, and he lived in the house that was completely built by cardboard boxes. This artistic construction took place in the year 2004.

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